10-K
false0.013--12-31P21Y0.0136210.689FY0.6080.0250.6820.0301.000000873303http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#ProductMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#ProductMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#ProductMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#PropertyPlantAndEquipmentNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#PropertyPlantAndEquipmentNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#PropertyPlantAndEquipmentNetfive monthshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OperatingLeaseLiabilityCurrent0000873303srpt:TwoThousandSeventeenCappedCallsPartialSettlementMember2023-03-022023-03-020000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMembersrpt:CustomersNotExceedMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:FirstInstallmentsMember2023-01-012023-03-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentySevenSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2021-12-310000873303srpt:NationwideChildrensHospitalMembersrpt:NationwideLicenseAgreementMembersrpt:ElevidysMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:RestrictedStockAndRestrictedStockUnitsRSUsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:TotalMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndNineteenTermLoanMember2022-09-152022-09-160000873303srpt:EXONDYSFiftyOneAndFiveAdditionalProductsMembersrpt:UniversityOfWesternAustraliaMember2016-12-310000873303us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membersrpt:StrategicEquityInvestmentsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:OtherAccrualsMember2021-12-3100008733032022-12-310000873303srpt:SoftwareAndComputerEquipmentMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2021-12-310000873303us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:BedfordMassachusettsMember2022-05-312022-05-310000873303us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:UniversityOfWesternAustraliaMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandEighteenEquityIncentivePlanMember2023-06-300000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMembersrpt:TwoThousandAndTwentySevenSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2022-09-152022-09-160000873303us-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:ColumbusOhioMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMembersrpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2023-03-022023-03-020000873303srt:MaximumMembersrpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMembersrpt:OtherCountriesMember2021-11-012021-11-300000873303srpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMemberus-gaap:IntellectualPropertyMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-12-310000873303srpt:LicenseAgreementMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMembersrpt:TwoThousandSeventeenCappedCallTransactionsMember2017-11-132017-11-140000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Membersrpt:StrategicEquityInvestmentsMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310000873303srpt:GenethonMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2019-11-012019-11-300000873303srpt:PromptPayMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:RocheMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:AdditionalFundingAgreementTermsMembersrpt:ContractResearchOrganizationsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srt:MinimumMember2017-07-012017-07-310000873303srpt:ParagonBioservicesIncMembersrpt:ManufacturingCollaborationAgreementMember2020-12-310000873303srpt:RebatesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:CorporateBondsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:SoftwareDevelopmentMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:GenethonMember2019-11-012019-11-3000008733032023-03-022023-03-020000873303us-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMembersrpt:RocheMember2019-12-212019-12-210000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMembersrpt:CustomersNotExceedMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:EmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:GenethonMember2021-01-012021-12-3100008733032023-01-012023-12-3100008733032015-01-012015-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310000873303srt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMembersrt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2023-03-022023-03-020000873303srpt:CorporateBondsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMember2017-12-310000873303srpt:ConvertibleDebtAndTermLoanAndRevolverAndMortgageLoansMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:CustomerThreeMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:LicenseAgreementMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AdditionalFundingAgreementTermsMembersrpt:ContractResearchOrganizationsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2013-06-300000873303srpt:ColumbusOhioMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:CustomerThreeMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-12-310000873303us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:PromptPayMember2021-12-310000873303srpt:PromptPayMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:RocheMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2019-12-210000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:LabEquipmentMember2022-12-310000873303srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-12-310000873303us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:NonUsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000873303srt:MinimumMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:ThermoFisherScientificIncorporationMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember2023-12-310000873303srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember2017-06-012017-06-300000873303us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:ParagonBioservicesIncMembersrpt:ManufacturingCollaborationAgreementMember2018-10-310000873303srpt:CappedCallTransactionsMember2022-09-152022-09-160000873303srpt:RestrictedStockAndRestrictedStockUnitsRSUsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:LandImprovementsMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:GenethonMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:ThermoFisherScientificIncorporationMember2022-01-012022-12-3100008733032021-01-012021-01-010000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:CustomerTwoMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2018-01-012018-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:CustomerThreeMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2023-03-020000873303srpt:SeriesAPreferredStockPurchaseAgreementMembersrpt:LacertaTherapeuticsIncMemberus-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2018-08-080000873303us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310000873303srpt:UniversityOfWesternAustraliaMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:LandMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:GenethonMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:SeriesAPreferredStockPurchaseAgreementMembersrpt:LacertaTherapeuticsIncMemberus-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMember2018-08-080000873303us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2021-12-310000873303srpt:ElevidysMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:RocheMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMembersrt:ScenarioForecastMember2024-03-310000873303srpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMembercountry:US2021-11-012021-11-300000873303srpt:CorporateBondsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-12-310000873303srpt:ChargebacksMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandSeventeenCappedCallsPartialSettlementMember2022-09-182022-09-190000873303us-gaap:AdditionalFundingAgreementTermsMembersrpt:ContractResearchOrganizationsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMember2021-01-012021-12-3100008733032023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMembersrpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2017-11-140000873303srpt:AldevronLLCMembersrpt:ClinicalAndCommercialSupplyAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:InterestMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:DomesticCountryMemberus-gaap:ResearchMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310000873303srpt:StrategicEquityInvestmentsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:OtherAccrualsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:CorporateBondsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-3100008733032020-01-012020-12-310000873303us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2020-12-310000873303us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:MyonexusTherapeuticsIncMember2019-04-012019-04-300000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-11-012021-11-300000873303srpt:MyonexusTherapeuticsIncMember2019-04-300000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMembersrpt:TwoThousandAndTwentySevenSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2022-09-160000873303us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2020-01-012020-12-310000873303us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentySevenSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:NoIndividualMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-3100008733032022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:LicensingAgreementsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandEighteenEquityIncentivePlanMember2022-06-300000873303srpt:ContractResearchOrganizationsMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:AmondysFortyFiveMembersrpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMember2021-02-280000873303us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:OtherAccrualsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2017-11-132017-11-140000873303us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2022-12-310000873303srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMembersrpt:RocheMember2019-12-212019-12-210000873303us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:RocheMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:ParagonBioservicesIncMembersrpt:ManufacturingCollaborationAgreementMember2018-10-012018-10-310000873303us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-3100008733032021-10-012021-10-310000873303srpt:RocheMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMembersrpt:ElevidysMember2023-01-012023-12-3100008733032023-06-300000873303us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMembersrpt:CustomerOneMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandTwentyFourNotesRepurchaseMember2022-09-140000873303srpt:OtherAccrualsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2023-12-310000873303srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:BedfordMassachusettsMember2022-05-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMembersrpt:CustomerFourMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:SoftwareDevelopmentMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:CappedCallTransactionsMember2022-09-160000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMembersrpt:CustomerOneMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srt:MaximumMembersrpt:ColumbusOhioMember2018-12-220000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:ManufacturingCollaborationAgreementMember2022-11-012022-11-3000008733032021-02-012021-02-280000873303srpt:TwoThousandSeventeenCappedCallTransactionsMember2017-11-140000873303us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310000873303srpt:BiotechnologyCompanyMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2019-01-012019-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2016-06-300000873303us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:ThermoFisherScientificIncorporationMembersrpt:SupplyAgreementMember2018-06-300000873303us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310000873303srpt:PmoProductsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2023-12-3100008733032021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMembersrpt:SeptemberTwentyTwoThousandTwentyFiveMembersrpt:TwoThousandAndTwentySevenSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2022-09-152022-09-160000873303us-gaap:OfficeEquipmentMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMembersrpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2017-11-132017-11-140000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMembersrpt:RocheMembersrpt:ElevidysMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:BedfordMassachusettsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:RestrictedStockUnitsWithCertainPeformanceConditionsMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:OtherLicensedProductsMember2019-11-012019-11-300000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMembersrpt:CustomerOneMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:ColumbusOhioMembersrt:MinimumMember2018-12-220000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:RebatesMember2021-12-310000873303srpt:FDAMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:ConvertibleDebtAndTermLoanAndRevolverAndMortgageLoansMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:CorporateBondsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Membersrpt:StrategicEquityInvestmentsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:RocheMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMembersrpt:ElevidysMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:ThermoFisherScientificIncorporationMembersrpt:SupplyAgreementMember2018-10-012018-10-310000873303us-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMembersrpt:ElevidysMember2023-12-310000873303srt:MaximumMembersrpt:EXONDYSFiftyOneAndFiveAdditionalProductsMembersrpt:UniversityOfWesternAustraliaMember2016-06-012016-06-300000873303srt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:LabEquipmentMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:NoIndividualMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMembersrpt:ThermoFisherScientificIncorporationMembersrpt:SupplyAgreementMember2021-10-012021-10-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentySevenSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310000873303srpt:EmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2023-01-012023-12-3100008733032023-01-012023-03-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membersrpt:StrategicEquityInvestmentsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandSeventeenCappedCallTransactionsMember2017-11-132017-11-140000873303srpt:OptionsWithServiceConditionsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:GenethonMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:CorporateBondsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2023-12-310000873303srpt:OtherAccrualsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:ChargebacksMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:UnderwrittenPublicOfferingMember2021-10-012021-10-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:RocheMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:LandImprovementsMember2022-12-310000873303srt:MaximumMembersrpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMember2021-11-012021-11-300000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:ColumbusOhioMember2018-12-220000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:CustomerTwoMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandFourteenEmploymentCommencementIncentivePlanMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:ElevidysMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:ColumbusOhioMembersrpt:InitialExpansionSpaceMember2022-10-010000873303srpt:PrincipalMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:PatentsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:LicenseAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:ResearchMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:LicenseAgreementMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandEighteenEquityIncentivePlanMember2018-06-300000873303us-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandTwentyFourNotesRepurchaseMember2022-09-132022-09-140000873303srpt:GenethonMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:StrategicEquityInvestmentsMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMembersrpt:CustomerOneMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:CustomerTwoMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:NationwideLicenseAgreementMembersrpt:ElevidysMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandEighteenEquityIncentivePlanMember2020-06-300000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2017-11-140000873303us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:RebatesMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:LandMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:UniversityOfWesternAustraliaMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndNineteenTermLoanMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:SoftwareAndComputerEquipmentMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentyFourSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2022-12-3100008733032021-10-310000873303us-gaap:OfficeEquipmentMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:MyonexusTherapeuticsIncMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:ChargebacksMember2021-12-310000873303us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2022-12-310000873303srt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:BedfordMassachusettsMember2022-04-222022-04-220000873303srpt:ColumbusOhioMembersrpt:ThirdExpansionSpaceMember2023-09-010000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentySevenSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2022-09-152022-09-160000873303us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:CorporateBondsMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:NationwideChildrensHospitalMembersrpt:NationwideLicenseAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:StockUnitsWithServiceConditionsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:AmondysFortyFiveMembersrpt:UniversityOfWesternAustraliaMember2021-02-280000873303srpt:TwoThousandEighteenEquityIncentivePlanMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:BedfordMassachusettsMember2022-04-220000873303srt:MaximumMembersrpt:SoftwareAndComputerEquipmentMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:PmoProductsMembercountry:US2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:CorporateBondsMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:ChargebacksMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:CashDepositsAndMoneyMarketFundsMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:LacertaTherapeuticsIncMembersrpt:LicenseAndPurchaseAgreementMember2018-08-080000873303us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2023-06-300000873303srpt:GenethonMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:SecondExpansionSpaceMembersrpt:ColumbusOhioMember2022-06-010000873303srpt:RebatesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:RebatesMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Membersrpt:StrategicEquityInvestmentsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:PromptPayMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000873303country:USsrpt:ElevidysMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndNineteenTermLoanMember2022-09-160000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMembersrt:ChiefExecutiveOfficerMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:PromptPayMember2022-12-3100008733032021-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2019-06-300000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:PmoProductsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:RocheMemberus-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:PmoProductsMembercountry:US2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:LicensingAgreementsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:PmoProductsMembersrpt:RestOfWorldMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndTwentySevenSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2022-09-1600008733032024-02-230000873303srpt:BioMarinPharmaceuticalIncorporationMemberus-gaap:EuropeanUnionMember2021-11-012021-11-300000873303srpt:UniversityOfWesternAustraliaMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:EmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandFourteenEmploymentCommencementIncentivePlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:ChargebacksMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Membersrpt:StrategicEquityInvestmentsMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:CashDepositsAndMoneyMarketFundsMember2023-12-310000873303srpt:VYONDYSFiftyThreeMembersrpt:UniversityOfWesternAustraliaMember2019-12-310000873303srpt:ThermoFisherScientificIncorporationMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:LacertaTherapeuticsIncMemberus-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMembersrpt:ManufacturingCollaborationAgreementMember2021-03-012021-03-310000873303srt:MaximumMembersrpt:BedfordMassachusettsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommonStockMembersrpt:CappedCallTransactionsMember2022-09-152022-09-1600008733032020-12-310000873303srt:MaximumMember2017-07-012017-07-310000873303us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:CustomerTwoMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:CustomerTwoMemberus-gaap:AccountsReceivableMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:RestrictedStockAndRestrictedStockUnitsRSUsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303country:USsrpt:ElevidysMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMembersrpt:CustomerOneMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303us-gaap:PatentsMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CollaborativeArrangementMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:MyonexusTherapeuticsIncMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2023-12-310000873303srt:DirectorMembersrpt:TwoThousandAndTwentySevenSeniorConvertibleNotesMember2022-09-160000873303srpt:NationwideChildrensHospitalMembersrpt:NationwideLicenseAgreementMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310000873303srpt:NationwideChildrensHospitalMembersrpt:NationwideLicenseAgreementMember2021-07-012021-07-310000873303us-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:SoftwareAndComputerEquipmentMember2022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2023-12-310000873303us-gaap:ResearchMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:NoIndividualMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2022-01-012022-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srpt:TwoThousandFourteenEmploymentCommencementIncentivePlanMember2014-09-300000873303srpt:PmoProductsMembersrpt:RestOfWorldMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srt:MinimumMember2021-01-012021-12-310000873303us-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMembersrpt:CustomersExceedMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-310000873303srt:MaximumMembersrpt:TwoThousandAndThirteenEmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2023-01-012023-12-31iso4217:EURutr:Mxbrli:puresrpt:Suiteutr:sqftxbrli:sharesiso4217:USDxbrli:sharessrpt:Segmentsrpt:Dayssrpt:Milestoneiso4217:USD

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM TO

Commission File Number : 001-14895

 

Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

 

93-0797222

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

 

 

215 First Street

Suite 415

Cambridge, MA

 

02142

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (617) 274-4000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value

 

SRPT

 

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

(The NASDAQ Global Select Market)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YesNo

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES ☐ NO

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2023, was approximately $10,681,685,915.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of February 23, 2024 was 93,855,410.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The registrant has incorporated by reference into Part II and Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K portions of its definitive Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc.

FORM 10-K INDEX

 

 

Page

PART I

 

6

Item 1. Business

 

6

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

32

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

69

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

 

69

Item 2. Properties

 

71

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

 

71

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

71

PART II

 

72

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity
Securities

 

72

Item 6. Reserved

 

72

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

73

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

84

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

84

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

84

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

 

84

Item 9B. Other Information

 

85

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

 

85

PART III

 

86

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

86

Item 11. Executive Compensation

 

86

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

86

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

86

Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

86

PART IV

 

87

Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

87

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

 

94

 

-i-


 

Forward-Looking Information

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section in Item 7, and other materials accompanying this Annual Report on Form 10-K contain forward-looking statements or incorporate by reference forward-looking statements. Statements that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are often identified by words such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “will,” “may,” “estimate,” “could,” “continue,” “ongoing,” “predict,” “potential,” “likely,” “seek” and other similar expressions, as well as variations or negatives of these words. These statements address expectations, projections of future results of operations or financial condition, or other “forward-looking” information. These statements relate to our future plans, objectives, expectations, intentions and financial performance and the assumptions that underlie these statements. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

our belief that our proprietary technology platforms and collaborations can be used to develop potential therapeutic candidates to treat a broad range of diseases;
our expectation that our partnerships with manufacturers will support our clinical and commercial manufacturing capacity for our Duchenne muscular dystrophy ("Duchenne") gene therapy programs and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy ("LGMD") programs, while also acting as a manufacturing platform for potential future gene therapy programs, and our belief that our current network of manufacturing partners is able to fulfill the requirements of our commercial plan;
our expectation that Aldevron LLC ("Aldevron") will provide Good Manufacturing Processes ("GMP")-grade plasmid for our LGMD programs, as well as plasmid source material for future gene therapy programs;
our plan to continue building out our network for commercial distribution in jurisdictions in which our products are approved and evaluating relationships with suppliers;
estimated timelines and milestones for 2024 and beyond, including meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") in the second half of 2024 with respect to SRP-5051, and the Efficacy Supplement review goal date of June 21, 2024 for ELEVIDYS;
our plan to expand our pipeline through internal research and development and through strategic transactions;
the timely completion and satisfactory outcome of our post-marketing requirements and commitments, including verification of a clinical benefit for our products;
our engagement with regulatory authorities outside of the U.S.;
the possible impact of regulations and regulatory decisions by the FDA and other regulatory agencies on our business, as well as the development of our product candidates and our financial and contractual obligations;
our understanding that the FDA is not planning to hold an advisory committee meeting to discuss the supplement for ELEVIDYS;
the possible impact of any competing products on the commercial success of our products and our product candidates and our ability to compete against such products;
our ability to enter into research, development or commercialization alliances with universities, hospitals, independent research centers, non-profit organizations, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and other entities for specific molecular targets or selected disease indications and our ability to selectively pursue opportunities to access certain intellectual property rights that complement our internal portfolio through license agreements or other arrangements;
our expectations regarding the potential benefits of the partnership, licensing and/or collaboration arrangements and other strategic arrangements and transactions we have entered into or may enter into in the future;
the potential benefits of our technologies and programs, including those with strategic partners;
our plans and ability to file and progress to issue additional patent applications to enhance and protect our new and existing technologies and programs;
our estimates regarding how long our currently available cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to finance our operations and business plans and statements about our future capital needs;
our estimates regarding future revenues, research and development expenses, other expenses, capital requirements and payments to third parties;

-2-


 

the potential impact of an increase of the infection rates of COVID-19, or other similar pandemics, on our business, including our commercial sales, ongoing and planned clinical trials, manufacturing and operations;
our expectation regarding the impact of environmental laws and regulations on our business; and
our beliefs and expectations regarding milestone, royalty or other payments that could be due to third parties under existing agreements.

 

We undertake no obligation to update any of the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K after the date of this report, except as required by law or the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). We caution readers not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and other written and oral forward-looking statements made by us from time to time, are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements, including the risks, uncertainties and assumptions identified under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

-3-


 

 

Risk Factors Summary

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those described in Item 1A “Risk Factors”. These risks include, but are not limited to the following:

We are highly dependent on the commercial success of our products in the U.S. We may not be able to meet expectations with respect to sales of our products or maintain profitability and positive cash-flow from operations.
Even though EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53, AMONDYS 45 and ELEVIDYS have received accelerated approval from the FDA, they face future post-approval development and regulatory requirements, which present additional challenges for us to successfully navigate.
Failure to obtain or maintain regulatory exclusivity for our products could result in our inability to protect our products from competition and our business may be adversely impacted.
We are subject to uncertainty relating to reimbursement policies which, if not favorable, could hinder or prevent the commercial success of our products and/or product candidates.
Our products may not be widely adopted by patients, payors or healthcare providers, which would adversely impact our potential profitability and future business prospects.
Historical revenues from eteplirsen, golodirsen and casimersen through our early access program ("EAP") outside the U.S. may not continue and we may not be able to continue to distribute our products through our EAP.
We face intense competition and rapid technological change, which may result in other companies discovering, developing or commercializing competitive products.
We have entered into multiple collaborations and strategic transactions, including our collaboration with F. Hoffman-La Roche Ltd ("Roche"), and may seek or engage in future collaborations, strategic alliances, acquisitions or licensing agreements that complement or expand our business. We may not be able to complete such transactions, and such transactions, if executed, may increase our capital requirements, dilute our stockholders, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities and subject us to other risks.
We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials, which could delay or prevent clinical trials of our product candidates.
Future sales of ELEVIDYS may decrease sales growth, or reduce sales, of EXONDYS 51, AMONDYS 45 and VYONDYS 53 (collectively, the "PMO Products"), which could negatively impact our operating results, including through potential inventory write-offs.
Failures or delays in the commencement or completion of ongoing and planned clinical trials of our product candidates could negatively impact commercialization efforts; result in increased costs; and delay, prevent or limit our ability to gain regulatory approval of product candidates and to generate revenues and continue our business.
Clinical development is lengthy and uncertain. Clinical trials of our novel gene therapy candidates may be delayed, including as a result of a resurgence in COVID-19, or other similar pandemics, infection rates, and certain programs may never advance in the clinic or may be more costly to conduct than we anticipate, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Results from pre-clinical and early‑stage clinical trials may not be indicative of efficacy in late‑stage clinical trials, and pre-clinical and clinical trials may fail to demonstrate acceptable levels of safety, efficacy, and quality of our product candidates, which could prevent or significantly delay their regulatory approval.
Our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent regulatory approval of product candidates, limit the commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences following any

-4-


 

potential marketing approval.
 
If there are significant delays in obtaining or we are unable to obtain or maintain required regulatory approvals, we will not be able to commercialize our product candidates in a timely manner or at all, which could impair our ability to generate sufficient revenue and have a successful business.
We are investing significant resources in the development of novel gene therapy product candidates. Only a few gene therapy products have been approved in the U.S. and the European Union (“EU”). If we are unable to show the safety and efficacy of these product candidates, experience delays in doing so or are unable to successfully commercialize at least one of these drugs, our business would be materially harmed.
 
Because we are developing product candidates for the treatment of certain diseases in which there is little clinical experience and we are using new endpoints or methodologies, there is increased risk that the FDA, the European Medicines Agency (the "EMA") or other regulatory authorities may not consider the endpoints of our clinical trials to provide clinically meaningful results and that these results may be difficult to analyze. Accordingly, the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities could interpret these data in different ways from us or our partners, which could delay, limit or prevent full or accelerated regulatory approval.
 
We may not be able to advance all of our programs, and we may use our financial and human resources to pursue particular programs and fail to capitalize on programs that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
If we are unable to maintain our agreements with third parties to distribute our products to patients, our results of operations and business could be adversely affected.
 
We rely on third parties to conduct some aspects of our early stage research and pre-clinical and clinical development. The inadequate performance by or loss of any of these third parties could affect the development and commercialization of our product candidate development. The third parties we use in the manufacturing process for our products and product candidates may fail to comply with current good manufacturing practices ("cGMP") regulations.
We currently rely on third parties to manufacture our products and to produce our product candidates. Our dependence on these parties, including failure on our part to accurately anticipate product demand and timely secure manufacturing capacity to meet commercial, EAP, clinical and pre-clinical product demand may impair the availability of product to successfully support various programs, including research and development and the potential commercialization of additional product candidates in our pipeline.
 
Products intended for use in gene therapies are novel, complex and difficult to manufacture. We could experience production problems or inaccurately forecast demand, which could result in delays in our development or commercialization of other gene therapy programs, limit the supply of our product candidates or future approved products or otherwise harm our business.
Our success, competitive position and future revenue depend in part on our ability and the abilities of our licensors and other collaborators to obtain, maintain and defend the patent protection for our products, product candidates, and platform technologies, to preserve our trade secrets, and to prevent third parties from infringing on our proprietary rights.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted and may continue to result in disruptions to our commercialization, clinical trials, manufacturing and other business operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, cash flows and prospects.
We have incurred operating losses since our inception and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.
Our stock price is volatile and may fluctuate due to factors beyond our control.
Our revenues and operating results could fluctuate significantly, which may adversely affect our stock price.

-5-


 

PART I

Item 1. Business.

Overview

We are a commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on helping patients through the discovery and development of unique RNA-targeted therapeutics, gene therapy and other genetic therapeutic modalities for the treatment of rare diseases. Applying our proprietary, highly-differentiated and innovative technologies, and through collaborations with our strategic partners, we have developed multiple approved products for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (“Duchenne”) and are developing potential therapeutic candidates for a broad range of diseases and disorders, including Duchenne, Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (“LGMDs”) and other neuromuscular and central nervous system (“CNS”) related disorders.
 

To date, we have developed and commercialized the following four approved products for the treatment of Duchenne: EXONDYS 51 (eteplirsen) Injection (“EXONDYS 51”), VYONDYS 53 (golodirsen) Injection (“VYONDYS 53”), AMONDYS 45 (casimersen) Injection (“AMONDYS 45”), and ELEVIDYS. Each of these approved products, and the indications for which they have been approved for, is described under the heading "Our Commercial Products" in this Item 1.

Technology and Platforms

Exon skipping is intended to promote the production of an internally truncated but functional dystrophin protein. The original phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer ("PMO") structure and variations of this structure that are so-called PMO-based (collectively “PMO-based”) are central to our proprietary chemistry platform. PMO technologies can be used to selectively up-regulate or down-regulate the production of a target protein through pre-mRNA splice alteration. PMO-based compounds have the potential to be designed to create more, less, or none of certain proteins, or produce analogues of endogenous proteins. This technology can be used to correct disease-causing genetic errors by inducing the targeted expression of novel proteins.

The PMO chemistry platform is highly adaptable, and we have developed next-generation PMO-based chemistries for advancing RNA-targeted therapeutics. These next-generation chemistries are specifically designed to enhance tissue targeting, intracellular delivery, target selectivity and drug potency. One of these novel technologies is based on cell-penetrating peptide-conjugated PMO (“PPMO”). The PPMO features covalent attachment of a cell-penetrating peptide to a PMO with the goal of enhanced delivery into the cell. Our most advanced PPMO product candidate is SRP-5051, which is designed to treat Duchenne in patients with genetic mutations amenable to exon 51 skipping. In pre-clinical research and clinical trials for SRP-5051, our proprietary class of PPMO compounds demonstrated an increase in dystrophin production and a more durable response compared to PMO. In addition, PPMO treatment in non-human primates resulted in high levels of exon-skipping in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissues. Pre-clinical trials and clinical trials for SRP-5051 also indicated that PPMOs may require less frequent dosing than PMOs, and that PPMOs could potentially be tailored to reach other organs beyond muscle.

As part of our multifaceted approach to Duchenne, we are also developing gene therapy technologies to treat Duchenne. Our gene therapy aims to express a smaller but still functional version of dystrophin. We use a unique adeno-associated virus (“AAV”) vector called AAVrh.74 to transport the transgene – the genetic material that will make the protein of interest – to the target cells. A unique, engineered dystrophin is used because naturally-occurring dystrophin is too large to fit in an AAV.

We are also developing gene therapy programs for various forms of LGMDs. Our most advanced LGMD product candidate, SRP-9003, is designed to transfer a gene that codes for and restores beta-sarcoglycan protein with the goal of restoring the dystrophin associated protein complex. SRP-9003 utilizes the AAVrh.74 vector, the same vector used in ELEVIDYS.

Our pipeline includes more than 40 programs at various stages of discovery, pre-clinical and clinical development, reflecting our aspiration to apply our multifaceted approach and expertise in precision genetic medicine to make a profound difference in the lives of patients suffering from rare diseases.

-6-


 

Objectives and Business Strategy

We believe that our proprietary technology platforms and collaborations can be used to develop novel pharmaceutical products to treat a broad range of diseases and address key currently-unmet medical needs. We intend to leverage our technology platforms, organizational capabilities, collaborations and resources to lead the field of precision genetic medicines, including the treatment of rare, neuromuscular and other diseases, with a diversified portfolio of product candidates. In pursuit of this objective, we intend to focus on the following activities:

continuing to build our gene therapy engine, including developing gene therapy product candidates, operationalizing our manufacturing strategy and furthering our commercial capabilities in preparation for potential regulatory approvals;
advancing our RNA technologies (e.g., PMO and PPMO), launching potential approved products and supporting commercialization of approved products;
investing in next-generation precision medicine through internal research, strategic partnerships, collaborations and other potential opportunities; and
continuing to nurture our culture, which is based on strong patient focus, bias to action, a self-starter mentality, smart and appropriate risk-taking and high ethics.

Core Therapeutic Areas

Duchenne: Duchenne is a rare X-linked recessive genetic disorder affecting children (primarily males) that is characterized by progressive muscle deterioration and weakness. It is the most common type of muscular dystrophy. Duchenne is caused by an absence of dystrophin, a protein that protects muscle cells. The absence of dystrophin in muscle cells leads to significant cell damage and ultimately causes muscle cell death and fibrotic replacement. In the absence of dystrophin protein, affected individuals generally experience the following symptoms, although disease severity and life expectancy vary:

muscle damage characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and loss of myofibers beginning at an early age;
muscle weakness and progressive loss of muscle function beginning in the first few years of life;
decline of ambulation and respiratory function after the age of seven;
total loss of ambulation in the pre-teenage or early teenage years;
progressive loss of upper extremity function during mid- to late-teens; and
respiratory and/or cardiac failure, resulting in death before the age of 30.

LGMDs are autosomal recessive, monogenic, rare neuromuscular diseases caused by missense and deletion mutations. These diseases affect males and females equally. Some types of LGMDs affect skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. More severe forms of LGMDs mimic Duchenne. LGMDs as a class affect an estimated range of approximately 1 in every 14,500 to 1 in every 123,000 individuals. Currently, there are no approved treatment options for LGMDs.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (“CMT”) Disease is a group of hereditary, degenerative nerve diseases that are caused by mutations in genes that produce proteins involved in the structure and function of either the peripheral nerve axon or the myelin sheath. CMT can cause degeneration of motor skills, resulting in muscle weakness, and limiting patients’ ability to walk or use their hands, and in some cases, can cause degeneration of sensory nerves, resulting in a reduced ability to feel heat, cold, and pain. CMT affects approximately 1 in every 2,500 individuals, while CMT type 1A, which is most often caused by an extra copy of the PMP22 gene, affects approximately 50,000 patients in the U.S. Most patients are diagnosed at infancy, while other patients develop symptoms at adolescence. Currently, there are no available treatment options.

-7-


 

Our Commercial Products

EXONDYS 51. We launched our first commercial product, EXONDYS 51, in 2016. EXONDYS 51 is indicated for the treatment of Duchenne in patients who have a confirmed mutation of the dystrophin gene that is amenable to exon 51 skipping. EXONDYS 51 uses our PMO chemistry and exon-skipping technology to skip exon 51 of the dystrophin gene. PMO-based compounds are synthetic compounds that bind to complementary sequences of RNA by standard Watson-Crick nucleobase pairing. The two key structural differences between PMO-based compounds and naturally occurring RNA are that the PMO nucleobases are bound to synthetic morpholino rings instead of ribose rings, and the morpholino rings are linked by phosphorodiamidate groups instead of phosphodiester groups. Replacement of the negatively charged phosphodiester in RNA with the uncharged phosphorodiamidate group in PMO eliminates linkage ionization at physiological pH. Due to these modifications, PMO-based compounds are resistant to degradation by plasma and intracellular enzymes. Unlike the RNA-targeted technologies such as siRNAs and DNA gapmers, PMO-based compounds operate by steric blockade rather than by cellular enzymatic degradation to achieve their biological effects. Thus, PMOs use a fundamentally different mechanism from other RNA-targeted technologies.

EXONDYS 51 targets the most frequent series of mutations that cause Duchenne. Approximately 13% of Duchenne patients are amenable to exon 51 skipping.

VYONDYS 53. We launched VYONDYS 53 in 2019. VYONDYS 53 is indicated for the treatment of Duchenne in patients who have a confirmed mutation of the dystrophin gene that is amenable to exon 53 skipping. VYONDYS 53 uses our PMO chemistry and exon-skipping technology to skip exon 53 of the dystrophin gene. VYONDYS 53 has the potential to treat up to 8% of Duchenne patients who are amenable to exon 53 skipping.

AMONDYS 45. We launched AMONDYS 45 in 2021. AMONDYS 45 is indicated for the treatment of Duchenne in patients who have a confirmed mutation of the dystrophin gene that is amenable to exon 45 skipping. AMONDYS 45 uses our PMO chemistry and exon-skipping technology to skip exon 45 of the dystrophin gene. AMONDYS 45 has the potential to treat up to 8% of Duchenne patients who are amenable to exon 45 skipping.

We are conducting various clinical trials for EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53 AND AMONDYS 45, including studies that are required to comply with our post-marketing FDA requirements and commitments to verify and describe the clinical benefit of the three products.

ELEVIDYS. We launched ELEVIDYS in the second quarter of 2023. ELEVIDYS is an adeno-associated virus based gene therapy for the treatment of ambulatory pediatric patients aged 4 through 5 years with Duchenne with a confirmed mutation in the Duchenne gene. ELEVIDYS is contraindicated in patients with any deletion in exon 8 and/or exon 9 in the Duchenne gene.

We are conducting various clinical trials for ELEVIDYS and announced our submission of an efficacy supplement to the biologics license application ("BLA") for ELEVIDYS to expand its label indication to remove age and ambulatory restrictions from the approved indication on December 22, 2023. The FDA granted priority review with a review goal date of June 21, 2024. We also submitted our postmarketing requirement related to the Phase 3 SRP-9001-301 confirmatory study for ELEVIDYS requesting conversion from accelerated approval to traditional approval during December 2023.

For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, the Company recorded net revenues of $1,144.9 million, $843.8 million and $612.4 million, respectively, related to the sale of our products.

Our Pipeline – Key Programs

SRP-5051 (Duchenne PPMO program) uses our next-generation PPMO and our exon-skipping technology to skip exon 51 of the dystrophin gene.

In 2019, we commenced a multiple ascending dose study for the treatment of Duchenne with SRP-5051 in patients who are amenable to exon 51 skipping (“Study 5051-201”). In December 2020 and May 2021, we announced results from Part A of Study 5051-201. We initiated Part B of Study 5051-201 in the fourth quarter of 2021. In August 2022, the FDA lifted the clinical hold placed on Study 5051-201 following a serious adverse event of hypomagnesemia. In January 2024, we announced results from Part B of Study 5051-2021. We plan to meet with FDA to discuss next steps in the second half of 2024.

SRP-9003 (LGMD, gene therapy program). We are developing gene therapy programs for various types of LGMDs. Our LGMD programs use the AAVrh.74 vector, the same vector used in our SRP-9001 gene therapy program, to transfect a restorative gene. The most advanced of our LGMD product candidates, SRP-9003, aims to treat LGMD2E, also known as beta-sarcoglycanopathy, a severe and debilitating form of LGMD characterized by progressive muscle fiber loss, inflammation and muscle fiber replacement with fat and fibrotic tissue. SRP-9003 is designed to transfect a gene that codes for and restores beta-sarcoglycan

-8-


 

protein with the goal of restoring the dystrophin associated protein complex. SRP-9003 has generated positive pre-clinical safety and efficacy data utilizing the AAVrh.74 vector.

A Phase 1/2a trial of SRP-9003 commenced in the fourth quarter of 2018. In February 2019, we announced two-month biopsy data from the first three-patient cohort dosed in the SRP-9003 trial, and in October 2019, we announced nine-month functional data from these three patients. In June 2020, we announced safety and expression results from three clinical trial participants in the high-dose cohort measured at 60 days, and one-year functional data from three clinical trial participants in the low-dose cohort. In September 2020, we announced six-month functional data from three clinical trial participants in the in the high-dose cohort, and 18-month functional data from three clinical trial participants in the low-dose cohort. We also announced one-year functional data in the high-dose cohort and two-year functional data in the low-dose cohort in March 2021. In March 2022, we announced 36-month functional data from three clinical trial participants in the low-dose cohort and 24-month functional data from two clinical trial participants in the high-dose cohort. In January 2024, we announced that we had begun screening in Study SRP-9003-301, a Phase 3, multi-national, open-label study of SRP-9003.

The chart below summarizes the status of our programs, including those with our strategic partners:

https://cdn.kscope.io/578a165c1433ea0ae0428b75ff33db6b-img78802856_0.jpg 

 

Manufacturing, Supply and Distribution

We have developed proprietary state-of-the-art Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls (“CMC”) capabilities that allow manufacturing and testing of our products and product candidates to support both clinical development as well as commercialization. We continue to refine and optimize our manufacturing processes and test methods. We have entered into certain manufacturing and supply arrangements with third-party suppliers which will in part utilize these capabilities to support production of certain of our product candidates and their components. We have also opened facilities over the past several years that significantly enhanced our internal research and development capabilities. However, we currently do not have internal Good Manufacturing Practices (“GMP”) manufacturing capabilities to produce our products and product candidates for commercial and/or clinical use. For our current and future manufacturing needs, we have entered into supply agreements with specialized contract manufacturing organizations (each a “CMO”) to produce custom raw materials, the active pharmaceutical ingredients (“APIs”), drug product and finished goods for our products and product candidates for both commercial and clinical use. All of our CMO partners have extensive technical expertise, GMP experience and experience manufacturing our specific technology.

-9-


 

For our commercial Duchenne PMO program, we have worked with our existing CMOs to increase production capacity from mid-scale to large-scale. While there is a limited number of companies that can produce raw materials and APIs in the quantities and with the quality and purity that we require for our commercial products, based on our diligence to date, we believe our current network of CMOs is able to fulfill these requirements, and is capable of expanding capacity as needed. Additionally, we have evaluated, and will continue to evaluate further relationships with additional suppliers to increase overall capacity as well as further reduce risks associated with relying on a limited number of suppliers for manufacturing.

Our gene therapy manufacturing capabilities have been greatly enhanced through partnerships with Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (“Thermo”), Catalent, Inc. (“Catalent”) and Aldevron LLC (“Aldevron”). We have adopted a hybrid development and manufacturing strategy in which we have built internal expertise relative to all aspects of AAV-based manufacturing, including gene therapy and gene editing, while closely partnering with experienced manufacturing partners to expedite development and commercialization of our gene therapy programs. We have secured manufacturing capacity at Thermo and Catalent to support our clinical and commercial manufacturing demand for ELEVIDYS and our LGMD programs, while also acting as a manufacturing platform for potential future gene therapy programs. The collaboration integrates process development, clinical and commercial production and testing. Aldevron provides GMP-grade plasmid for ELEVIDYS and is expected to provide plasmid source material for our LGMD programs and future gene therapy programs.

Manufacturers and suppliers of our commercial products and product candidates are subject to the current GMP (“cGMP”) requirements and other rules and regulations prescribed by FDA and other foreign regulatory authorities. We depend on our third-party partners for continued compliance with cGMP requirements and applicable foreign standards.

Our PMO commercial products are distributed in the U.S. through a limited network of home infusion specialty pharmacy providers that deliver the medication to patients and a specialty distributor that distributes our products to hospitals and hospital outpatient clinics. With respect to the pre-commercial distribution of our products to patients outside of the U.S., we have contracted with third party distributors and service providers to distribute our products in certain countries through our EAPs. We plan to continue building out our network for commercial distribution in jurisdictions in which our products are approved.

The U.S. distribution model for ELEVIDYS employs multiple distribution partners that include third-party logistics providers, as well as a limited network of specialty pharmacy providers that provide the medication to hospitals for infusion.

Material Agreements

We believe that our RNA-targeted and gene therapy technologies could be broadly applicable for the potential development of pharmaceutical products in many therapeutic areas. To enhance and further exploit our core technologies, we have and may continue to enter into research, development or commercialization alliances with universities, hospitals, independent research centers, non-profit organizations, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and other entities for new technologies, including for specific molecular targets or selected disease indications. We may also selectively pursue opportunities to access certain intellectual property rights that complement our internal portfolio through license agreements or other arrangements.

The following descriptions of the terms of our material agreements is not complete and is qualified in their entirety by reference to the text of the agreements, copies of which are filed as exhibits to this Annual Report.

F. Hoffman-La Roche Ltd

License, Collaboration, and Option Agreement

On December 21, 2019, we entered into a license, collaboration, and option agreement (the “Collaboration Agreement”) with F. Hoffman-La Roche Ltd (“Roche”) pursuant to which we granted Roche an exclusive license under certain of our intellectual property rights to develop, manufacture, and commercialize ELEVIDYS (SRP-9001) in all countries outside of the U.S. We retained all rights to SRP-9001 in the U.S. The transaction closed on February 4, 2020. We have entered into Amendments 1 through 14 to the Collaboration Agreement on: October 23, 2020, October 28, 2020, February 4, 2021, June 23, 2021, August 31, 2021, November 30, 2021, January 5, 2022, January 28, 2022, March 23, 2022, May 31, 2022, June 23, 2022, July 28, 2022, August 31, 2022 and October 31, 2022, respectively.

Also, under the terms of the Collaboration Agreement, Roche granted us a license to use certain of its intellectual property rights to perform development activities worldwide under a joint global development plan, commercialize ELEVIDYS in the U.S., and perform certain manufacturing and medical affairs activities worldwide. Such license is non-exclusive under Roche’s background intellectual property rights, exclusive in the U.S. under intellectual property rights developed by Roche under the Collaboration Agreement, and non-exclusive outside the U.S. under intellectual property rights developed by Roche under the Collaboration Agreement.

We intend to manufacture and supply ELEVIDYS in the relevant markets in which we have approval, or in the future receive approval.

-10-


 

Roche Options and Negotiation Rights

Pursuant to the Collaboration Agreement, we granted Roche an exclusive option to obtain an exclusive license to develop, manufacture and commercialize the following products outside of the U.S.: (i) certain exon-skipping products that target the dystrophin gene to induce exon skipping, including eteplirsen, golodirsen, casimersen and SRP-5051; (ii) certain gene therapy products other than ELEVIDYS that encode and directly express dystrophin or a derivative thereof; and (iii) certain gene-editing products that modify, repair, or activate an endogenous dysfunctional dystrophin gene. The products subject to Roche’s options are collectively referred to as the “Option Products.” Upon option exercise, the Option Product that is the subject of the option exercise will be included under the Collaboration Agreement as a product licensed to Roche subject to similar obligations, including with respect to development, manufacturing, commercialization, and cost-sharing as those that apply to ELEVIDYS.

Pursuant to the Collaboration Agreement, Roche has a right of first negotiation if we seek to grant a third-party license to commercialize ELEVIDYS in the U.S. Roche had a similar right of first negotiation with respect to our LGMDs products, but such right has expired.

Exclusivity

Other than under the Collaboration Agreement, Roche may not perform any clinical trials for, or commercialize, any gene therapy product, gene-editing product, or antisense oligonucleotide for Duchenne for a period of five years following the execution of the Collaboration Agreement. The exclusivity period for one or more types of products may be extended if Roche exercises its option with respect to one or more exon-skipping products, gene therapy products, or gene-editing products, in each case, for a period of five years from the time of option exercise.

Development

The parties will use commercially reasonable efforts to conduct development activities with respect to ELEVIDYS under the Collaboration Agreement pursuant to agreed-upon development plans. Subject to certain exceptions, we will perform all development activities directed to obtaining and maintaining, as applicable, regulatory approvals for ELEVIDYS in the U.S. and the EU, as set forth in a joint global development plan. Subject to certain exceptions, the parties will share the costs of the development activities under such joint global development plan. Roche will have sole responsibility to perform all development activities set forth in a territory-specific development plan for ELEVIDYS, including additional activities not set forth in the joint global development plan that are specifically directed to obtaining and maintaining regulatory approvals for ELEVIDYS outside of the U.S. Roche will be solely responsible for costs arising from the territory-specific development plan for ELEVIDYS.

Governance

Governing committees have been established to facilitate collaboration between the parties with respect to development, manufacturing, medical affairs, intellectual property protection, and commercialization of ELEVIDYS and any other licensed products.

Financial Terms

In consideration for the rights that we granted and for prepaid funding for development activities, in February 2020, Roche and Roche Finance Ltd, an affiliate of Roche (“Roche Finance”), together paid us an up-front payment of approximately $1.2 billion. Of the $1.2 billion cash received from Roche, (i) $312.1 million, net of issuance costs, was allocated to the approximately 2.5 million shares of our common stock issued to Roche based on the closing price when the shares were issued, (ii) $485.0 million was allocated to the option to purchase the Option Products, and (iii) $348.7 million was allocated to a single, combined performance obligation comprised of: (i) the license of IP relating to ELEVIDYS transferred to Roche, (ii) the related research and development services provided under the joint global development plan, (iii) the services provided to manufacture clinical supplies of ELEVIDYS, and (iv) our participation in a joint steering committee with Roche, because we determined that the license of IP and related activities were not capable of being distinct from one another. Additionally, we are eligible to receive up to $1.7 billion in development, regulatory and sales milestone payments with respect to ELEVIDYS.

In addition, the Collaboration Agreement provides that Roche will pay us royalties on net sales of SRP-9001, at a tiered royalty rate based on the average cost to manufacture ELEVIDYS.

In the event that Roche chooses to exercise its option with respect to one or more Option Products, we will be paid an option exercise fee upon each such exercise and the Option Products that are the subject of the option exercise will be subject to separate milestone payments and royalties on sales of such Option Product.

-11-


 

Term; Termination

Unless earlier terminated as described below, the Collaboration Agreement will continue with respect to ELEVIDYS or any Option Product for which Roche has exercised its option, on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis, until the end of the royalty term for such product in such country. The royalty term expires on the later of (a) twelve years after first commercial sale in such country, (b) loss of regulatory exclusivity in such country and (c) expiration of all valid claims of specific licensed patents in such country.

Either party may terminate the Collaboration Agreement for the other party’s material breach if such breach is not cured within a specified cure period.

If Roche breaches its development or commercialization diligence obligations with respect to a licensed product or fails to develop or commercialize a particular licensed product in a particular region for a specified period of time, then we may terminate the Collaboration Agreement with respect to such licensed products in such regions.

Roche may terminate the Collaboration Agreement if we fail to supply ELEVIDYS to Roche in accordance with the terms of the Collaboration Agreement and the supply agreements to be entered into between the parties. Roche may also terminate the Collaboration Agreement for convenience with extended advance notice, in its entirety or on a licensed product-by-licensed product and region-by-region basis.

Myonexus Therapeutics Inc.

In April 2019, we acquired Myonexus Therapeutics Inc. ("Myonexus"), a privately-held Delaware corporation, for $173.8 million pursuant to an exclusive warrant to purchase Myonexus that we purchased in May 2018 for an up-front payment of $60.0 million. As part of the consideration for the transaction, we are required to make contingent payments to the former shareholders of Myonexus upon achievement of a threshold amount of net sales of Myonexus products and the receipt and subsequent sale of a Priority Review Voucher ("PRV") with respect to a Myonexus product.

BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. (“BioMarin”)

License Agreement

On July 17, 2017, we executed a license agreement (as amended on April 14, 2019 and November 17, 2021, the “License Agreement”) with BioMarin Leiden Holding BV, BioMarin Nederlands BV and BioMarin Technologies BV (collectively, the “BioMarin Parties”), pursuant to which BioMarin Parties granted us a royalty-bearing, worldwide license under patent rights (“Licensed Patents”) and know-how (“Licensed Know-How”) controlled by the BioMarin Parties with respect to BioMarin’s Parties' Duchenne program, which are potentially necessary or useful for the treatment of Duchenne, to practice and exploit the Licensed Patents and Licensed Know-How in all fields of use and for all purposes, including to develop and commercialize antisense oligonucleotide products that target one or more exons of the dystrophin gene to induce exon skipping, including eteplirsen, golodirsen and casimersen (collectively, the “Products”).

The license granted to us by the BioMarin Parties is co-exclusive with the BioMarin Parties, with respect to the Licensed Patents, and is non-exclusive with respect to Licensed Know-How. Pursuant to the amendment to the License Agreement dated November 17, 2021 (the “2021 Amendment”), the BioMarin Parties exercised their rights to convert the exclusive license under the Licensed Patents to the current co-exclusive license.

Under the terms of the License Agreement, we were required to pay the BioMarin Parties an up-front payment of $15.0 million. Pursuant to the 2021 Amendment, the BioMarin Parties are eligible to receive up to $20.0 million from us per dystrophin gene exon (other than exon 51) targeted by one or more Products in specified regulatory milestones, as well as an additional $10.0 million milestone, payable following the regulatory approval of eteplirsen by the EMA. The BioMarin Parties were also eligible to receive through June 30, 2022 royalties segmented by specified geographic markets, in some jurisdictions dependent on the existence of a patent, ranging from 4% to 8% of net sales on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis. Beginning July 1, 2022, pursuant to the 2021 Amendment, the BioMarin Parties were eligible to receive royalties of 4% in the U.S. and 5% outside the U.S. of net sales of Products covered by a Licensed Patent on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis.

Milestones and royalties were payable with respect to the Products through June 30, 2022. Beginning July 1, 2022, pursuant to the 2021 Amendment, milestones and royalties are payable only with respect to the Products covered by a Licensed Patent. Beginning July 1, 2022, pursuant to the 2021 Amendment, the royalty term applicable to the Products covered by a Licensed Patent will expire upon March 31, 2024 in the U.S. and December 31, 2024 outside the U.S. The royalties for all Products covered by a

-12-


 

Licensed Patent are subject to reductions, including for generic competition and, under specified conditions, for a specified portion of payments that we may become required to pay under third-party license agreements, subject to a maximum royalty reduction.

Unless earlier terminated, the License Agreement will expire upon the expiration of the last-to-expire royalty term. Either party may terminate the License Agreement in the event of the other party’s uncured material breach. The BioMarin Parties may also terminate the License Agreement on a Licensed Patent-by-Licensed Patent basis under specified circumstances relating to patent challenges by us.

Settlement Agreement

On July 17, 2017, Sarepta and The University of Western Australia (“UWA”) on the one hand, and the BioMarin Parties and Academisch Ziekenhuis Leiden (“AZL”) on the other hand (collectively, the “Settlement Parties”), executed a Settlement Agreement (the "Settlement Agreement") pursuant to which all legal actions in the U.S. and certain legal actions in Europe (the “Actions”) would be stopped or withdrawn as between the Settlement Parties. Specifically, the terms of the Settlement Agreement required that existing efforts pursuing ongoing litigation and opposition proceedings would be stopped as between the Settlement Parties, and the Settlement Parties would cooperate to withdraw the Actions before the European Patent Office (except for actions involving third parties), the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit and the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, except for the cross-appeal of the Interlocutory Decision of the Opposition Division dated April 15, 2013 of the European Patent Office of EP 1619249B1 in which Sarepta agreed to withdraw its appeal and the BioMarin Parties/AZL agreed to continue with its appeal with Sarepta having oversight of the continued appeal by the BioMarin Parties/AZL.

Additionally, under the terms of the Settlement Agreement, the Settlement Parties agreed to release each other and the customers, end-users, agents, suppliers, distributors, resellers, contractors, consultants, services and partners of Sarepta or the BioMarin Parties (as applicable) from claims and damages related to (i) the patent rights controlled by the releasing party that are involved in the Actions, (ii) with respect to Sarepta and UWA, its patent rights related to the patent rights involved in the Actions, and (iii) with respect to the BioMarin Parties and AZL, all of the Licensed Patents and Licensed Know-How.

Under the terms of the Settlement Agreement, we made an up-front payment of $20.0 million to the BioMarin Parties.

University of Western Australia

In April 2013, we entered into an agreement with UWA under which an existing exclusive license agreement between the two parties was amended and restated and, in June 2016, we entered into the first amendment to the license agreement (the “UWA License Agreement”). The UWA License Agreement grants us specific rights to compounds for the treatment of Duchenne by inducing exon skipping. EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53 and AMONDYS 45 fall under the scope of the license agreement. Under the UWA License Agreement, we are required to make payments of up to $6.0 million in the aggregate to UWA based on the successful achievement of certain development and regulatory milestones relating to EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53, AMONDYS 45 and up to three additional product candidates. As of December 31, 2023, $4.2 million of the $6.0 million development and regulatory milestone payments had been made. We are also obligated to make payments to UWA of up to $20.0 million upon the achievement of certain sales milestones. Additionally, we are required to pay a low-single-digit percentage royalty on net sales of products covered by issued patents licensed from UWA during the term of the UWA License Agreement.

 

Currently, the latest date on which an issued patent covered by the UWA License Agreement expires is November 2030 (excluding any patent term extension, supplemental protection certificate or pediatric extensions that may be available); however, patents granted from pending patent applications could result in a later expiration date.

Catalent Maryland, Inc.

Catalent Supply Agreement

On November 28, 2022, we entered into an amended and restated product manufacturing and supply agreement with Catalent Maryland, Inc. (“Catalent”, and such agreement, as amended on November 28, 2022,the “Catalent Supply Agreement”). Under the Catalent Supply Agreement, Catalent has agreed, to manufacture and supply ELEVIDYS™ delandistrogene moxeparvovec-rokl, our micro-dystrophin gene therapy drug targeting Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Catalent is responsible for the operation of dedicated clean room suites for the manufacture of our ELEVIDYS product subject to Sarepta placing minimum annual orders. Catalent may not develop or manufacture products that compete with our ELEVIDYS product.

Supply Terms and Quality Assurance

-13-


 

 

The Catalent Supply Agreement contains customary supply terms, including requirements for forecasting, purchase orders, product specifications, batch testing and review procedures, price, payment terms, delivery mechanics and product insurance. In addition, it contains, a grant to Catalent of certain limited license rights of our intellectual property in connection with Catalent’s performance of services under the Catalent Supply Agreement, certain indemnification rights in favor of both parties, and limitations of liability. We and Catalent have also entered into a quality agreement, pursuant to which Catalent will conduct certain quality assurance, testing, characterization, stability and other quality control procedures in connection with the manufacture and supply of our ELEVIDYS product under the Catalent Supply Agreement.

Financial Terms

Upon receipt of a purchase order from us, Catalent will manufacture our ELEVIDYS product in accordance with the terms of the Catalent Supply Agreement, the then-current quality agreement and any applicable laws in exchange for the batch price specified in the Catalent Supply Agreement, which may be increased annually for industry standard cost increases. We may maintain dedicated clean rooms by placing specified annual minimum orders.

 

We are obligated to meet certain minimum annual thresholds with respect to orders of batches of our ELEVIDYS product to maintain dedicated manufacturing space, and, if we do not release the dedicated manufacturing space, we may be obligated to make certain payments to Catalent to the extent we do not meet such thresholds.

Term; Termination

 

Unless earlier terminated as described below, the Catalent Supply Agreement will continue with respect to the manufacture and supply of our ELEVIDYS product until December 31, 2028.

 

Either party may terminate the Catalent Supply Agreement for the other party’s material breach, if such breach is not cured within a specified cure period, and in the event that the other party files a petition in bankruptcy, insolvency, or for reorganization or similar arrangement for the benefit of creditors, in the event the other party is served with an involuntary petition against it in any insolvency proceeding and such involuntary petition has not been stayed or dismissed within a specified timeframe, or in the event that the other party makes an assignment of substantially all of its assets for the benefit of creditors.

 

We may also terminate the Catalent Supply Agreement in the event of certain delivery or supply failures, involuntary market withdrawals, material safety risks, a change of control by Catalent without our prior written consent, or certain patent disputes, among other things.

 

There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue our present arrangement with Catalent. Our dependence upon our arrangement with Catalent for the supply and manufacture of our ELEVIDYS product could adversely affect our ability to manufacture and deliver our ELEVIDYS product on a timely and competitive basis. See “Risk Factors— Risks Related to Manufacturing.”

Nationwide Children’s Hospital

 

On October 8, 2018, we entered into an exclusive license agreement (as amended on May 19, 2019 and July 11, 2023, the “License Agreement”) with Nationwide Children’s Hospital (“Nationwide”) pursuant to which we acquired an exclusive license under certain intellectual property rights to develop, manufacture and commercialize ELEVIDYS in all countries. We entered into Amendment 1 and Amendment 2 to the License Agreement on May 29, 2019 and July 11, 2023, respectively.

In consideration for the rights that Nationwide granted to us, we made an up-front payment and are obligated to make payments to Nationwide upon the achievement of certain development and sales milestones with respect to ELEVIDYS. In addition, we are required to pay a low-single-digit percentage royalty on net sales of ELEVIDYS, as well as a tiered percentage of remuneration we receive in connection with any sublicenses we grant. Unless earlier terminated, the License Agreement will expire upon the expiration of the last-to-expire royalty period. Either party may terminate the License Agreement in the event of the other party’s uncured material breach. Nationwide may also terminate the License Agreement under specified circumstances if we pursue litigation against Nationwide.

-14-


 

Patents and Proprietary Rights

Our success depends in part upon our ability to obtain and maintain exclusivity for our products, product candidates and platform technologies. We typically rely on a combination of patent protection and regulatory exclusivity to maintain exclusivity for our products and product candidates, whereas exclusivity for our platform technologies is generally based on patent protection and trade secret protection. In addition to patent protection, regulatory exclusivity, and trade secret protection, we also protect our products, product candidates and platform technologies with copyrights, trademarks, and contractual protections.

We actively seek patent protection for our product candidates and certain of our proprietary technologies by filing patent applications in the U.S. and other countries as appropriate. These patent applications are directed to various inventions, including, but not limited to, active ingredients, pharmaceutical formulations, methods of use, and manufacturing methods. In addition, we actively acquire exclusive rights to third party patents and patent applications to protect our in-licensed product candidates and corresponding platform technologies.

We do not have patents or patent applications in every jurisdiction where there is a potential commercial market for our product candidates. For each of our programs, our decision to seek patent protection in specific foreign markets, in addition to the U.S., is based on many factors, including:

our available resources;
the number and types of patents already filed or pending;
the likelihood of success of the product candidate;
the size of the commercial market;
the presence of a potential competitor in the market; and
whether the legal authorities in the market effectively enforce patent rights.

We continually evaluate our patent portfolio and patent strategy and believe our owned and licensed patents and patent applications provide us with a competitive advantage; however, if markets where we do not have patents or patent applications become commercially important, our business may be adversely affected. A discussion of certain risks and uncertainties that may affect our freedom to operate, patent position, regulatory exclusivities and other proprietary rights is set forth in Item 1A. Risk Factors included in this report, and a discussion of legal proceedings related to the key patents protecting our products and product candidates are set forth below in the footnotes to the tables in this section.

Certain of our product candidates are in therapeutic areas that have been the subject of many years of extensive research and development by academic organizations and third parties who may control patents or other intellectual property that they might assert against us, should one or more of our product candidates in these therapeutic areas succeed in obtaining regulatory approval and thereafter be commercialized. We continually evaluate the intellectual property rights of others in these areas in order to determine whether a claim of infringement may be made by others against us. Should we determine that a third party has intellectual property rights that could impact our ability to freely market a compound, we consider a number of factors in determining how best to prepare for the commercialization of any such product candidate. In making this determination we consider, among other things, the stage of development of our product candidate, the anticipated date of first regulatory approval, whether we believe the intellectual property rights of others are valid, whether we believe we infringe the intellectual property rights of others, whether a license is available upon commercially reasonable terms, whether we will seek to challenge the intellectual property rights of others, the term of the rights, and the likelihood of and liability resulting from an adverse outcome should we be found to infringe the intellectual property rights of others.

Currently, U.S. patents, as well as most foreign patents, are generally effective for 20 years from the date the earliest regular application was filed. In some countries, the patent term may be extended to recapture a portion of the term lost during regulatory review of the claimed therapeutic. For example, in the U.S., under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, commonly known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, a patent that covers an FDA-approved drug may be eligible for patent term extension (for up to five years, but not beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval) as compensation for patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. In the U.S., only one patent may be extended for any product based on FDA delay. In addition to patent term extension, patents in the U.S. may be granted additional term due to delays at the USPTO during prosecution of a patent application. We actively strive to maximize the potential for patent protection for our products and product candidates in accordance with the law.

-15-


 

Key Patents & Regulatory Exclusivities

Our products, product candidates and our technologies are primarily protected by composition of matter and methods of use patents and patent applications. Below we provide a summary of granted US and European composition of matter or method of use patents that relate to our marketed products and that we either: (1) solely or with another party own or control, or (2) exclusively license. To the extent the product indicated above the tables that immediately follow the name of such product is covered by a patent that is licensed to Sarepta, we may owe milestones and/or royalties to the indicated licensor in connection with the development and/or commercial sale of the product.

The various types of regulatory exclusivity for which our products have been granted and our product candidates are anticipated to be eligible to receive are generally discussed below, under ‘Government Regulation’ – ‘Data and Market Exclusivities’ and ‘Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity’.

 

Delandistrogene moxeparvovec-rokl

Patent Number

Country/Region*

Patent Type

Expiration Date**

Owner/Licensor

(if not Sarepta)

11,723,986

United States

Composition of Matter

September 26, 2037

Nationwide

In connection with its FDA approval on June 22, 2023, the FDA granted ELEVIDYS (delandistrogene moxeparvovec-rokl) data exclusivity until June 22, 2035, and Orphan Drug Exclusivity until June 22, 2030.

Eteplirsen

 

Patent Number

Country/Region*

Patent Type

Expiration Date**

Owner/Licensor

(if not Sarepta)

U.S. RE47,7511

United States

Methods of Use

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. 9,018,368

United States

Composition of Matter

June 28, 2025

UWA

US 10,781,451

United States

Composition of Matter

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. RE48,4682

United States

Methods of Use

October 27, 2028

BioMarin/AZL

U.S. RE47,7693

United States

Composition of Matter

February 2, 2029

UWA

U.S. 9,506,058

United States

Methods of Use

March 14, 2034

Sarepta

U.S. 10,364,431

United States

Methods of Use

March 14, 2034

Sarepta

U.S. 10,337,003

United States

Methods of Use

March 14, 2034

Sarepta

 

1.
Reissue of U.S. 8,486,907, which previously was involved in U.S. Patent Interference No. 106,013 and ordered to be cancelled pursuant to Judgment dated September 29, 2015 (Decision dated December 29, 2015 denied our (UWA) Request for Rehearing. Appeal by us (UWA) to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (Case Nos. 2016-1937, 2016-2086 (consolidated)) voluntarily dismissed July 27, 2017.)
2.
Reissue of U.S. 9,243,245.
3.
Reissue of U.S. 7,807,816, which previously was involved in U.S. Patent Interference No. 106,008 (Judgment dated September 20, 2016 ordered cancellation of all claims of U.S. Application No. 13/550,210 to BioMarin (AZL). Appeal by BioMarin (AZL) to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (Case No. 2017-1078) voluntarily dismissed July 27, 2017.)

 

 

 

Patent Number

Country/Region*

Patent Type

Expiration Date**

Owner/Licensor

(if not Sarepta)

EP 1 766 010 B1

Europe

Composition of Matter & Methods of Use

June 28, 2025

UWA

EP 3 238 737 B1

Europe

Composition of Matter

October 27, 2028

BioMarin/AZL

-16-


 

Golodirsen

 

Patent Number

Country/Region*

Patent Type

Expiration Date**

Owner/Licensor

(if not Sarepta)

U.S. RE47,6911

United States

Composition of Matter

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. 9,024,007

United States

Composition of Matter

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. 9,994,8512

United States

Composition of Matter

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. 10,266,8272

United States

Methods of Use

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. 10,227,5902

United States

Composition of Matter

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. 10,421,966

United States

Composition of Matter

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. 10,968,450

United States

Composition of Matter

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. 10,995,337

United States

Composition of Matter &

Methods of Use

June 28, 2025

UWA

 

1.
Reissue of U.S. 8,455,636, which previously was involved in U.S. Patent Interference No. 106,007. (Judgment dated April 29, 2016 ordered cancellation of (i) all claims, except claim 77, of U.S. Application No. 11/233,495 to BioMarin (AZL); and (ii) U.S. 8,455,636 to us (UWA). Appeal by BioMarin (AZL) to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (Case No. 2016-2262) voluntarily dismissed July 27, 2017.)
2.
Involved in Nippon Shinyaku Co., Ltd. v. Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc., C.A. No. 21-1015 (LPS) (D. Del. 2021) filed on July 13, 2021 in which Nippon Shinyaku is seeking a determination of invalidity and Sarepta is seeking counterclaims of infringement.

 

Patent Number

Country/Region*

Patent Type

Expiration Date**

Owner/Licensor

(if not Sarepta)

EP 2 970 964 B1

Europe

Composition of Matter

March 14, 2034

Sarepta

In connection with its FDA approval on December 12, 2019, the FDA granted VYONDYS 53 (golodirsen) new chemical entity ("NCE") exclusivity until December 12, 2024, and Orphan Drug Exclusivity until December 12, 2026.

Casimersen

 

Patent Number

Country/Region*

Patent Type

Expiration Date**

Owner/Licensor

(if not Sarepta)

U.S. 9,447,415

United States

Composition of Matter

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. RE48,9601

United States

Compositions of Matter and

Methods of Use

June 28, 2025

UWA

U.S. 9,228,187

United States

Composition of Matter

November 12, 2030

UWA

U.S. 9,758,783

United States

Methods of Use

November 12, 2030

UWA

U.S. 10,287,586

United States

Composition of Matter

November 12, 2030

UWA

U.S. 10,781,450

United States

Methods of Use

November 12, 2030

UWA

 

1.
Reissue of U.S. 8,524,880.

 

Patent Number

Country/Region*

Patent Type

Expiration Date**

Owner/Licensor

(if not Sarepta)

EP 2 499 249 B1

Europe

Composition of Matter &

Methods of Use

November 12, 2030

UWA

In connection with its FDA approval on February 25, 2021, the FDA granted AMONDYS 45 (casimersen) NCE exclusivity until February 25, 2026, and Orphan Drug Exclusivity until February 25, 2028.

* Granted patents in the U.S. and Europe (EP) are shown here. Additional patent protection in the U.S., Europe (EP) or other countries or regions through pending or granted foreign counterparts may be available.

-17-


 

** Stated expiration dates do not account for any patent term extension, supplemental protection certificate or pediatric extensions that may be available.

In addition to the foregoing composition of matter and method of use patents, we have rights to patent applications in the U.S. and in major foreign markets that, if granted, would provide additional protection for our products covered therein. These patents, and patent applications, if granted, would expire at various future dates and protection may be further extended by patent term extension, patent term adjustment, supplemental protection certificate or pediatric extensions that may be available.

Trademarks

Our trademarks are important to us and are generally filed to protect our corporate brand, our products and platform technologies. We typically file trademark applications and pursue their registration in the U.S., Europe and other markets in which we anticipate using such trademarks. We are the owner of multiple federal trademark registrations in the U.S. including, but not limited to, Sarepta, Sarepta Therapeutics, the double-helix logo, ELEVIDYS, EXONDYS, EXONDYS 51, the EXONDYS 51 Logo, VYONDYS, VYONDYS 53, the VYONDYS 53 Logo, AMONDYS, AMONDYS 45, and the AMONDYS 45 Logo. In addition, we have multiple pending trademark applications and registrations in the U.S. and in major foreign markets. Trademark protection varies in accordance with local law, and continues in some countries as long as the trademark is used and in other countries as long as the trademark is registered. Trademark registrations generally are for fixed but renewable terms.

Government Regulation

The research, development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, advertising, promotion, distribution, packaging, storage, exportation and marketing of our products are subject to extensive regulation by governmental authorities in the U.S. and in other countries. In the U.S., the FDA, under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Public Health Service Act, and their implementing regulations, regulates pharmaceutical products. Failure to comply with applicable U.S. requirements may subject us to administrative or judicial sanctions, such as FDA refusal to approve pending marketing applications, withdrawal of approval of approved products, warning letters, untitled letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, civil penalties and/or criminal prosecution.

U.S. Drug Approval Process

To obtain FDA approval of a product candidate, we must, among other things, submit clinical data providing substantial evidence of safety and efficacy of the product candidate for its intended use, as well as detailed information on product composition, its manufacture and controls and proposed labeling. The testing and collection of data and the preparation of necessary applications are expensive and time-consuming. The FDA may not act quickly or favorably in reviewing these applications, and we may encounter significant difficulties or costs in our efforts to obtain FDA approvals that could delay or preclude us from marketing our products.

The steps required before a drug may be approved for marketing in the U.S. generally include the following:

completion of pre-clinical laboratory tests and animal toxicity testing, including studies conducted in accordance with good laboratory practice requirements;
submission of an investigational new drug ("IND") for conducting human clinical testing to the FDA, which must become effective before human clinical trials commence;
approval by an Institutional Review Board (“IRB”) or independent ethics committee at each clinical trial site before each trial may be initiated;
performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with good clinical practice ("GCP")_ requirements and other clinical trial-related regulations to establish the safety and efficacy of the drug product for each indication, including controlled studies or comparison of treated group from clinical trials to data from natural history data or studies;
submission of a complete and compliant marketing application containing chemistry, manufacturing and control information for the drug substance and drug product, reports of nonclinical and clinical trials, product labeling and administrative information;
satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the commercial manufacturing facilities at which the drug substance and drug product are made to assess compliance with cGMP;

-18-


 

satisfactory FDA audit of the clinical trial site(s) that generated the pivotal safety and efficacy data included in the marketing application and also potentially the nonclinical trial site(s) in the form of pre-approval inspections; and
FDA review and approval of the marketing application.

Pre-clinical trials may include laboratory evaluations of the product chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and formulation, as well as animal studies to assess the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, bio-distribution, elimination and toxicity of the product candidate. The conduct of the pre-clinical tests and formulation of the compounds for testing must comply with federal regulations and requirements. The results of the pre-clinical trials, manufacturing information, analytical data and a proposed first in human clinical trial protocol are submitted to the FDA as part of the IND, which must become effective before clinical trials may be initiated. The IND will become effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA raises concerns or questions about the supportive data, or the study design, particularly regarding potential safety issues with conducting the clinical trial as described in the protocol. In this situation, the trials are placed on clinical hold and the IND sponsor must resolve any outstanding FDA concerns before clinical trials can proceed.

Clinical trials involve the administration of the product candidate to healthy volunteers or patient participants under the supervision of a qualified principal investigator. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing the objectives of the study, the administration of the investigational product, subject selection and exclusion criteria, study procedures, parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. Each protocol must be submitted to the FDA as a submission to the IND. Clinical trials must be conducted and monitored in accordance with the FDA’s GCP requirements and federal and state laws and regulations protecting study subjects. Further, each clinical trial must be reviewed and approved by the IRB at or servicing each institution in which the clinical trial will be conducted. The IRB will consider, among other things, rationale for conducting the trial, clinical trial design, participant informed consent, ethical factors, the safety and rights of human subjects and the possible liability of the institution. The FDA can temporarily or permanently halt a clinical trial at any time, or impose other sanctions, if it believes that the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with FDA requirements or presents an unacceptable risk to the clinical trial subjects. The IRB may also require the clinical trial at a particular site be halted, either temporarily or permanently, for failure to comply with GCP or the IRB’s requirements, or may impose other conditions.

Clinical trials typically are conducted in three sequential drug development phases (Phases 1, 2 and 3) prior to approval, and a portion of these phases may overlap. A fourth post-approval phase (Phase 4) may include additional clinical trials. A general description of clinical trials conducted in each phase of development is provided below. However, the number of study subjects involved in each phase of drug development for rare diseases can be significantly less than typically expected for more common diseases with larger patient populations:

Phase 1. Phase 1 clinical trials involve the initial introduction of the drug into human subjects. These studies are usually designed to determine the safety of single and multiple doses of the compound and determine any dose limiting toxicities or intolerance, as well as the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the drug in humans. Phase 1 studies usually involve fewer than 100 subjects and are conducted in healthy adult volunteers, unless it is unethical to administer the study drug to healthy volunteers, in which case they are tested in patients.
Phase 2. Phase 2 clinical trials are usually conducted in a limited patient population to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the drug for a specific indication to determine optimal dosage and to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks. Phase 2 studies usually involve patients with the disease under investigation and may vary in size from several dozen to several hundred.
Phase 3. If an investigational drug is found to be potentially effective and to have an acceptable safety profile in early phase studies, larger Phase 3 clinical trials are conducted to confirm clinical efficacy, dosage and safety in the intended patient population, which may involve geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. Generally, two adequate and well-controlled Phase 3 clinical trials which establish the safety and efficacy of the drug for a specific indication are required for approval of a marketing application. Phase 3 studies usually include several hundred to several thousand patients for larger, non-orphan drug indications/diseases. However, clinical trials for rare or orphan diseases generally have fewer patients due to their lower prevalence. For these orphan diseases, a company may also try to demonstrate efficacy and safety by comparing treated patients in clinical trials to untreated patients participating in placebo-controlled clinical trials or to observational natural history studies.
Phase 4. Phase 4 trials are clinical trials conducted after the FDA has approved a product for marketing. Typically, there are two forms of Phase 4 trials: those that are conducted to fulfill mandatory conditions of product approval and those that are voluntarily conducted to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. The mandatory studies are used to confirm clinical benefit in the case of drugs approved under the accelerated approval regulations or to provide additional clinical safety or efficacy data for “full” approvals. Failure to promptly conduct and complete mandatory Phase 4 clinical trials could result in withdrawal of approval for products approved under accelerated approval regulations.

-19-


 

A company seeking marketing approval for a new drug in the U.S. must submit the results of the pre-clinical and clinical trials to the FDA in the form of a marketing application, together with, among other things, detailed information on the manufacture and composition of the product candidate and proposed labeling, including payment of a user fee for FDA review of the application. The user fee is waived for an application for a product intended to treat an Orphan Indication. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality and quantity to establish the safety and efficacy of the investigational drug, or the safety, purity and potency of the investigational biologic, to the satisfaction of the FDA. FDA approval of a marketing application must be obtained before a drug or biologic may be marketed in the U.S.

The FDA assesses all submitted marketing applications for completeness before it accepts them for filing. In some cases, the FDA may request additional information before accepting a marketing application for filing. The FDA makes a decision on accepting a marketing application for filing within 60 days of receipt, and such decision could include a refusal to file by the FDA. The FDA may refuse to file any marketing application that it deems incomplete or not properly reviewable at the time of submission and may request additional information. In this event, the marketing application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application also is subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth review of the marketing application. Applications receive either standard or priority review. Under the current goals mandated under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (the “PDUFA”), the FDA has ten months in which to complete its initial review of a standard marketing application and respond to the applicant, and six months for a priority marketing application. The FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates for standard or priority marketing applications. The review process and the PDUFA goal date may be extended by three months if the FDA requests or the marketing application sponsor otherwise provides additional information or clarification regarding information already provided in the submission within the last three months before the PDUFA goal date. The FDA may refer an application to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. Though the FDA is not bound by such recommendations, it considers them carefully when making decisions. If the FDA’s evaluations of the marketing application and the clinical and manufacturing procedures and facilities are favorable, the FDA may issue an approval letter. If the FDA finds deficiencies in the marketing application, it may issue a complete response letter ("CRL"), which defines the conditions that must be met in order to secure final approval of the marketing application. If and when those conditions have been met to the FDA’s satisfaction, the FDA will issue an approval letter, authorizing commercial marketing of the drug. Sponsors that receive a CRL may submit to the FDA information that represents a complete response to the issues identified by the FDA. Resubmissions by the marketing application sponsor in response to a CRL trigger new review periods of varying length (typically two to six months) based on the content of the resubmission. If the FDA’s evaluation of the marketing application and the commercial manufacturing procedures and facilities is not favorable, the FDA may not approve the marketing application.

Even if the FDA approves a product, depending on the specific risk(s) to be addressed, the FDA may limit the approved indications for use of the product, require that contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling, require that post-approval studies, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess a product’s safety or efficacy after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization, or impose other conditions, including distribution and use restrictions or other risk management mechanisms under a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (“REMS”), which can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. REMS can include medication guides, communication plans for healthcare professionals, and elements to assure safe use (“ETASU”). ETASU can include, but are not limited to, special training or certification for prescribing or dispensing, dispensing only under certain circumstances, special monitoring, and the use of patent registries. The FDA may prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of post-marketing studies or surveillance programs. After approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes, and additional labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements and FDA review and approval.

A sponsor may also seek designation of its drug candidates under programs designed to accelerate the FDA’s review and potential approval of marketing applications. For instance, a sponsor may seek FDA designation of a drug candidate as a “fast track product.” Fast track products are those products intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and which demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for such disease or condition. If fast track designation is obtained, the FDA may initiate early and frequent communication and begin reviewing sections of a marketing application before the application is complete. This “rolling review” is available if the applicant provides, and the FDA approves, a schedule for the remaining information.

The Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (“FDASIA”) enacted and signed into law in 2012 amended the criteria for the fast track and accelerated approval pathways and, as a result, the pathways now share many common eligibility criteria. FDASIA provides both the sponsor companies and the FDA with greater flexibility and expedited regulatory mechanisms. The statute clarifies that a fast track product may be approved pursuant to an accelerated approval (Subpart – H) or under the traditional approval process. In addition, FDASIA codified the accelerated approval pathway as separate and apart from the fast track pathway, meaning that for drugs to be eligible for accelerated approval, they do not need to be designated under the fast track pathway. FDASIA

-20-


 

reinforces the FDA’s authority to grant accelerated approval of a drug that treats a serious condition and generally provides a meaningful advantage over available therapies and demonstrates an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality (“IMM”) that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on IMM or other clinical benefit (i.e., an intermediate clinical endpoint). Approvals of this kind typically include requirements for appropriate post-approval Phase 4 clinical trials to confirm clinical benefit. FDASIA retains this requirement and further requires those studies to verify and describe the predicted effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit. The Food and Drug Omnibus Reform Act of 2022 (“FDORA”) signed by President Biden on December 29, 2022 as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023 (H.R. 2617) includes numerous reforms to the accelerated approval process for drugs and biologics and enables FDA to require, as appropriate, that a post-approval study be underway prior to granting accelerated approval. FDORA also expands the expedited withdrawal procedures already available to FDA to allow the agency to use expedited procedures if a sponsor fails to conduct any required post-approval study of the product with due diligence including with respect to “conditions specified by the Secretary of HHS.” FDORA also adds the failure of a sponsor of a product approved under accelerated approval to conduct with due diligence any required post-approval study with respect to such product or to submit timely reports with respect to such product to the list of prohibited acts in the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Additionally, FDASIA established a new, expedited regulatory mechanism referred to as breakthrough therapy designation. Breakthrough therapy designation, fast track, and accelerated approval are not mutually exclusive and are meant to serve different purposes. The breakthrough therapy designation is focused on expediting the development and review process and by itself does not create an alternate ground for product approval. A sponsor may seek FDA designation of a drug candidate as a breakthrough therapy if the drug is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. The FDA issued guidance entitled “Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions––Drugs and Biologics” in May 2014.

Finally, if a drug candidate demonstrates a significant benefit over existing therapy, it may be eligible for priority review, which means it will be reviewed within a six-month timeframe from the date a complete marketing application is accepted for filing. A Regenerative Medicine Advanced Therapy (“RMAT”) designation is also designed to accelerate approval for regenerative advanced therapies such as our gene therapy product candidates, but the exact mechanisms have not yet been announced by FDA.

We cannot be sure that any of our drug candidates will qualify for any of these expedited development, review and approval programs, or that, if a drug does qualify, that the product candidates will be approved, will be accepted as part of any such program or that the review time will be shorter than a standard review.

Holders of an approved marketing application are required to:

report serious adverse drug reactions to the FDA;
submit annual and periodic reports summarizing product information and safety data;
comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotional labeling;
continue to have quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to cGMP after approval; and
conduct any post-marketing study designated as a required condition of the marketing application approval.

The FDA periodically inspects the sponsor’s records related to safety reporting and/or manufacturing; this latter effort includes assessment of compliance with cGMP. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance. Discovery of problems with a product after approval may result in restrictions on a product, manufacturer, or holder of an approved marketing application, including withdrawal of the product from the market.

Foreign Regulatory Requirements

In 2018, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (“CHMP”) within the EMA confirmed its negative opinion for eteplirsen, and the European Commission ("EC") adopted the CHMP opinion.

As of the date of this Annual Report, EXONDYS 51, has been approved for sale and marketing in the U.S., Israel and Kuwait, AMONDYS 45 has been approved for sale and marketing in the U.S. and Kuwait, and VYONDYS 53 and ELEVIDYS have only been approved for sale and marketing in the U.S

Thus, in addition to regulations in the U.S., our business is subject to a variety of foreign regulations governing clinical trials and commercial sales and distribution of our products. Irrespective of whether it concerns an FDA approved or investigational drug,

-21-


 

the commencement of clinical trials and the subsequent marketing of a drug product in foreign countries are subject to preliminary approvals from the corresponding regulatory authorities of such countries. For example, the conduct of clinical trials in the EU is governed by the Clinical Trials Regulation (EU) No 536/2014 (the "CTR") and the principles and guidelines on GCP.

In April 2014, the EU adopted the CTR, which is now in application. The CTR requires a clinical trial sponsor to obtain a clinical trial authorization (“CTA”) from the national competent authority (“NCA”) of each European Union member state in which the clinical trial is to be conducted. Furthermore, the sponsor can only start a clinical trial at a specific study site after the local research ethics committee (“REC”) has issued a favorable opinion.

Subject to the transition arrangement referenced below, a sponsor must submit a single application for a CTA, through a centralized EU clinical trials portal, the Clinical Trials Information System (“CTIS”). One NCA (the reporting EU member state selected by the sponsor) takes the lead in validating and evaluating the application, as well as consulting and coordinating with the other concerned member states in which the clinical trial is to be conducted. If an application is rejected, it may be amended and resubmitted through CTIS. A concerned member state may in limited circumstances declare an “opt-out” from an approval and prevent the clinical trial from being conducted in that member state.

The CTR foresees a three-year transition period. As of January 31, 2023, all new CTAs had to be submitted via CTIS and made pursuant to the CTR. By January 31, 2025, all clinical trials that are still ongoing and that were authorized under the Directive 2001/20/EC (which was replaced by the CTR), must be transitioned to the new regime.

In order to obtain marketing authorization for a medicinal product in the EU, applicants are required to submit a marketing authorization (“MA”) application ("MAA") to either (a) the NCAs of the EU member states of interest (through the decentralized, mutual recognition, or national procedures) or (b) the EMA (through the centralized authorization procedure). Irrespective of the procedure, applicants are required to demonstrate the quality, safety and efficacy of the medicinal product in the application for MA, which implies the requirement to conduct human clinical trials to generate the necessary clinical data.

Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council lays down the rules applicable to the centralized procedure for the authorization of medicinal products. The centralized procedure allows pharmaceutical companies to submit a single MAA to the EMA, which, if successful, results in a single MA to market the medicinal product throughout the entire EU and Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway (collectively, the “EEA”). Approval via the centralized procedure is a two-step process whereby the CHMP first evaluates the MAA and issues an opinion on whether the medicinal product may be authorized or not (step 1). The CHMP opinion is subsequently sent to the EC, which takes a legally binding decision to grant a MA (step 2). The MA is valid throughout the EEA and is automatically recognized in Iceland, Lichtenstein and Norway. This allows the MA holder to market the medicine and make it available throughout the entire EEA. The timeframe for the first step of the centralized procedure (evaluation by the CHMP) opinion is 210 days from receipt of a valid application. However, the actual time needed to complete this first step is generally longer than the 210 days, since procedural clock stops are required in order for the applicant to respond to additional requests for information by the CHMP. Following a positive CHMP opinion, the EC has 67 days to issue its decision to grant the MA or not.

Accelerated evaluation of the MAA under the centralized procedure is possible in exceptional cases, following a justified request from the applicant, when a medicinal product is of major interest for public health, particularly from the point of view of therapeutic innovation. The CHMP determines what constitutes a major public interest on a case-by-case basis. If the applicant provides sufficient justification for an accelerated assessment, the CHMP can reduce the timeframe for review of a MAA to 150 days, excluding a limited procedural clock-stop. The timeframe for the EC to issue its decision remains unaltered.

In relation to the EEA, Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 defines in which cases the centralized application procedure must (mandatory scope) or may (optional scope) be followed. The centralized procedure is mandatory for certain types of medicinal products, including those developed using a biotechnological process (such as recombinant DNA technology, controlled expression of genes coding for biologically active proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including transformed mammalian cells, hybridoma and monoclonal antibody methods), orphan medicinal products, advanced therapy medicinal products (gene-therapy, somatic cell-therapy or tissue-engineered medicines) and products containing a new active substance indicated for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, auto-immune and other immune dysfunctions, viral diseases and neurodegenerative diseases biotechnology medicinal products, orphan medicinal products, advanced-therapy medicinal products. For medicinal products that do not fall under any of the aforementioned categories, a submission via the centralized procedure is possible, provided that it concerns (i) a new active substance or (ii) product that can demonstrate a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation and for which approval would be in the interest of public health. Given the foregoing, our portfolio of innovative orphan products for neurodegenerative diseases is subject to the mandatory centralized procedure.

-22-


 

Similar to the U.S., MA holders and manufacturers of medicinal products are subject to comprehensive regulatory oversight by the EMA and/or the national competent authorities of the EU Member States. This oversight applies both before and after the granting of manufacturing and MAs. It includes compliance with EU GMP and GDP rules in relation to such activities as distribution, importing and exporting of medicinal products, rules governing conduct of pharmacovigilance (including good pharmacovigilance practices) and requirements governing advertising, promotion and sale of medicinal products.

Failure to comply with the EU Member State laws implementing the EU Community Code on medicinal products, and EU rules governing the promotion of medicinal products, interactions with physicians, misleading and comparative advertising and unfair commercial practices, with the EU Member State laws that apply to the promotion of medicinal products, statutory health insurance, bribery and anti-corruption or with other applicable regulatory requirements can result in enforcement action by the relevant EU Member State authorities. This may include any of the following sanctions: fines, imprisonment, orders forfeiting products or prohibiting or suspending their supply to the market, orders to suspend, vary, or withdraw the marketing authorization or requiring the manufacturer to issue public warnings, or to conduct a product recall.

The approval process in other countries outside the U.S. and the EU varies from country to country, and the time may be longer or shorter than that required for the FDA approval. In addition, the requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement for market access vary greatly from country to country. In all cases, clinical trials are conducted in accordance with GCP and the applicable regulatory requirements and the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki.

 

Data and Market Exclusivities

In addition to patent exclusivities, the FDA and certain other foreign health authorities may grant data or market exclusivity for a newly approved chemical entity or biologic, which runs in parallel to any patent protection. Regulatory data protection or exclusivity prevents a potential generic competitor from relying on clinical trial data generated by the sponsor when establishing the safety and efficacy of its competing product. Market exclusivity prohibits any marketing of the same drug for the same indication.

In the U.S., the FDA will generally grant an NCE that is the subject of an NDA with five years of regulatory data exclusivity, during which time a competitor generally may not submit an application to the FDA based on a sponsor’s clinical data. A competitor, however, may file an Abbreviated New Drug Application (“ANDA”) seeking approval of a generic drug four years from the date of approval of the innovative product if it is accompanied by a so-called Paragraph IV certification. FDA will also grant three years of exclusivity for an NDA or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example, new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions of use associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for drugs containing the original active agent for other conditions of use. For a newly approved biologic that is the subject of a BLA, the FDA will generally grant 12 years of market exclusivity, during which time a competitor may not market the same drug for the same indication.

In addition, the FDA may provide six months of pediatric exclusivity to a sponsor of a marketing application if the sponsor conducted a pediatric study or studies of a product. This process is applied to products developed for adult use and is initiated by the FDA as a written request for pediatric studies that applies to a sponsor’s product. If the sponsor conducts qualifying studies and the studies are accepted by the FDA, then an additional six months of pediatric exclusivity will be added to previously granted exclusivity, such as orphan drug exclusivity and NCE exclusivity, as well as certain patent-based exclusivities.

In relation to the EEA, innovative medicinal products which have been authorized on the basis of a complete independent data package consisting of quality, preclinical testing results and clinical trial data, benefit from an eight-year period of data exclusivity and a ten-year period of marketing protection/exclusivity. During the data exclusivity period, applicants for approval of generics of these innovative products cannot reference or rely upon data contained in the MA dossier submitted for the innovative medicinal product. During the marketing protection period, even if the generic product is approved, it cannot be placed on the market until the full ten-year period of market protection has elapsed from the initial authorization of the reference medicinal product. The marketing protection period can be extended to a maximum of 11 years if, during the first eight years of those ten years, the MA holder for the innovative product obtains an authorization for one or more new therapeutic indications which, during the scientific evaluation prior to their authorization, are held to bring a significant clinical benefit in comparison with existing therapies.

In the EEA, all applications for MA for new medicines must include the results of studies as described in an agreed pediatric investigation plan (“PIP”) aimed at ensuring that the necessary data are obtained through studies in children, unless the medicine is exempt because of a deferral or waiver. PIPs are agreed with the EMA’s Pediatric Committee. The PIP sets out the timing and measures proposed to generate data to support a pediatric indication of the drug for which MA is being sought. Deferrals allow an applicant to delay development of the medicine in children until, for instance, there is enough information to demonstrate its effectiveness and safety in adults. Waivers, on the other hand, may be granted when the development of a medicine in children is not

-23-


 

needed or is not appropriate, such as for diseases that only affect the adult population or when the product does not represent a significant therapeutic benefit over existing treatments for pediatric patients. Products that are granted a MA with the results of the pediatric clinical trials conducted in accordance with the PIP (even where such results are negative) are eligible for six months’ supplementary protection certificate extension (if any is in effect at the time of approval). In the case of orphan medicinal products, a two-year extension of the orphan market exclusivity may be available. This pediatric reward is subject to specific conditions and is not automatically available when data in compliance with the PIP are developed and submitted.

Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity

In the U.S., the FDA may grant orphan drug designation to drugs intended to treat a rare disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the U.S., or more than 200,000 individuals in the U.S. for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the U.S. a drug for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales in the U.S. for that drug. An orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an application for marketing approval. An orphan drug designation does not shorten the duration of the regulatory review and approval process. The approval of an orphan designation request does not alter the regulatory requirements and process for obtaining marketing approval. Safety and efficacy of a compound must be established through adequate and well-controlled studies. If a chemical or biological product which has an orphan drug designation subsequently receives FDA approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the product is generally entitled to an orphan drug exclusivity period of seven years, which means the FDA may not grant approval to any other application to market the same chemical or biological product for the same indication for a period of seven years, except in limited circumstances, such as where an alternative product demonstrates clinical superiority to the product with orphan exclusivity.

The FDA has historically taken the position that the scope of orphan exclusivity aligns with the approved indication or use of a product, rather than the disease or condition for which the product received orphan designation. However, on September 30, 2021, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit issued a decision in Catalyst Pharms., Inc. v. Becerra holding that the scope of orphan drug exclusivity must align with the disease or condition for which the product received orphan designation, even if the product’s approval was for a narrower use or indication. The FDA announced on January 24, 2023 that despite the Catalyst decision, it will continue to apply its longstanding regulations, which tie the scope of orphan exclusivity to the uses or indications for which the drug is approved, rather than to the designation. The FDA’s application of its orphan drug regulations post-Catalyst could be the subject of future legislation or to further challenges in court, and it remains to be seen how this decision affects orphan drug exclusivity going forward. In addition, holders of exclusivity for orphan drugs are expected to assure the availability of sufficient quantities of their orphan drugs to meet the needs of patients. Failure to do so could result in the withdrawal of orphan exclusivity for the drug. Competitors may receive approval of different drugs or biologics for the indications for which a prior approved orphan drug has exclusivity.

Pharmaceutical companies can apply for their product to be designated as an orphan medicine; such applications must be submitted prior to submitting a MAA. In the EU, applications for orphan designation are evaluated by the EMA’s Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (“COMP”) in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 141/2000. In order to qualify as an orphan medicine, the medicinal product must be intended to diagnose, prevent or treat a condition that is life-threatening or chronically debilitating, with a prevalence of no more than 5 in 10,000 people in the EU or for which it is unlikely that the development of the medicine would generate sufficient returns to justify the investment needed for its development. In addition, the sponsor is required to demonstrate that no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention or treatment of the condition has been authorized in the EU or, if such method exists, the medicinal product is of significant benefit to those affected by the condition as compared to approved methods. The COMP is required to re-assess the granted orphan designation at the time of MA grant to ensure that it continues to meet the criteria for the designation to be maintained. Otherwise, the orphan designation can be revoked. The benefits of being granted orphan designation are significant, including up to ten years of market exclusivity. During this ten-year period, the EMA may not accept a MAA for a similar medicinal product for the same therapeutic indication as the approved orphan medicinal product. Pursuant to Regulation (EC) 1901/2006 on medicinal products for pediatric use, and as mentioned above, the ten-year orphan market exclusivity can be extended to a maximum period of 12 years upon the satisfactory completion of all the studies of the agreed PIP with the pediatric study results reflected in the summary of product characteristics. We have been granted orphan drug designation for eteplirsen in the EU.

Expanded / Early Access

In certain countries, drug products approved in the U.S. or the EU can be accessed by patients before the drug has obtained marketing approval in such country. There are various forms of this access including, but not limited to, the actual purchase of product by the purchaser, which is often times the government for patients, on a named patient basis, and providing the product free of charge on a named patient basis for compassionate use. Each country has its own laws and regulations that apply to these forms of access and the extent and nature of such laws and regulations vary by country. For example, in 2018, the so-called Right to Try Act became law in the U.S. The law, among other things, allows eligible patients to access certain investigational new drug products that have completed a Phase I clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for FDA approval without enrolling in clinical trials and

-24-


 

without obtaining FDA permission under the FDA expanded access program. There is no obligation for a pharmaceutical manufacturer to make its drug products available to such eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act.

We established a global EAP for eteplirsen, golodirsen and casimersen in some countries where eteplirsen, golodirsen and casimersen currently have not been approved. The EAP provides a mechanism through which physicians can prescribe our products, within their professional responsibility, to patients who meet pre-specified medical and other criteria and can secure funding.

Other Regulatory Requirements

In addition to regulations enforced by the FDA and foreign authorities relating to the clinical development and marketing of products, we are or may become subject to regulation under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and other present and potential future foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations. Our research and development processes involve the controlled use of hazardous materials and chemicals and produce waste products. We are subject to federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of hazardous materials and waste products. Although we believe that we are in material compliance with applicable environmental laws that apply to us, we cannot predict whether new regulatory restrictions will be imposed by state or federal regulators and agencies or whether existing laws and regulations will adversely affect us in the future. While it is impossible to accurately predict the future costs associated with environmental compliance and potential remediation activities, we understand the importance of complying with all current and future applicable environmental laws and regulations. Compliance with environmental laws is not expected to require significant capital expenditures and has not had, and is not expected to have, a material adverse effect on our operations.

Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Laws

We are subject to various federal, state and local laws targeting fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry, including anti-kickback and false claims laws. Violations of fraud and abuse laws may be punishable by crime or civil sanctions, including fines and civil monetary penalties, and/or exclusion from federal health care programs (including Medicare and Medicaid). Federal and state authorities are paying increased attention to enforcement of these laws within the pharmaceutical industry, and private individuals have been active in alleging violations of the laws and bringing suits on behalf of the government under the federal False Claims Act (“FCA”). Violations of international fraud and abuse laws could result in similar penalties, including exclusion from participation in health programs outside the U.S. Given the broad scope of these laws, our activities could be subject to scrutiny under the laws. If we were subject to allegations concerning, or were convicted of violating, these laws, our business could be harmed.

The federal Anti-Kickback Statute generally prohibits, among other things, a pharmaceutical manufacturer from directly or indirectly soliciting, offering, receiving, or paying any remuneration in cash or in kind where one purpose is either to induce the referral of an individual for, or the purchase or prescription of, a particular drug that is payable by a federal health care program, including Medicare or Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or a specific intent to violate the statute. Violations of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute can result in exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid or other governmental programs as well as civil and criminal fines and penalties of up to $120,816 per violation and three times the amount of the unlawful remuneration. A claim arising from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute also constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the FCA. A new federal anti-kickback statute enacted in 2018 prohibits certain payments related to referrals of patients to certain providers (such as clinical laboratories) and applies to services reimbursed by private health plans as well as government health care programs.

Federal and state false claims laws generally prohibit anyone from knowingly and willfully, among other activities, presenting, or causing to be presented for payment to third party payors (including Medicare and Medicaid) claims for drugs or services that are false or fraudulent (which may include claims for services not provided as claimed or claims for medically unnecessary services). False or fraudulent claims for purposes of the FCA carry fines and civil penalties for violations ranging from $13,508 to $27,018 for each false claim, plus up to three times the amount of damages sustained by the federal government and may provide the basis for exclusion from federally funded healthcare programs. There is also a criminal FCA statute by which individuals or entities that submit false claims can face criminal penalties. In addition, under the federal Civil Monetary Penalty Law, the HHS Office of Inspector General has the authority to exclude from participation in federal health care programs or to impose civil penalties against any person who, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, certain false or otherwise improper claims. A federal healthcare fraud statute prohibits the knowing and willful execution, or attempt to execute, a scheme to defraud a health care benefit program, including private health plans, or obtain, through false or fraudulent pretenses, money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, such a health care benefit program.

The majority of states also have anti-kickback, false claims, and similar fraud and abuse laws and although the specific provisions of these laws vary, their scope is generally broad, and there may not be regulations, guidance or court decisions that apply the laws to particular industry practices.

-25-


 

Laws and regulations have also been enacted by the federal government and various states to regulate the sales and marketing practices of pharmaceutical manufacturers. The laws and regulations generally limit financial interactions between manufacturers and health care providers; require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the U.S. federal government; and/or require disclosure to the government and/or public of financial interactions (so-called “sunshine laws”). State laws may also require disclosure of pharmaceutical pricing information and marketing expenditures. Manufacturers must also submit information to the FDA on the identity and quantity of drug samples requested and distributed by a manufacturer during each year. Many of these laws and regulations contain ambiguous requirements or require administrative guidance for implementation. Given the lack of clarity in laws and their implementation, our activities could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent federal and state laws and regulations.

Similar to the Anti-Kickback Statue in the U.S., the provision of benefits or advantages to physicians to induce or encourage the prescription, recommendation, endorsement, purchase, supply, order or use of medicinal products is also prohibited in the EU. The provision of benefits or advantages to induce or reward improper performance generally is governed by the national anti-bribery laws of EU member states, and the Bribery Act 2010 in the UK. Infringement of these laws could result in substantial fines and imprisonment. Further, Directive 2001/83/EC, which governs medicinal products for human use, further provides that, where medicinal products are being promoted to persons qualified to prescribe or supply them, no gifts, pecuniary advantages or benefits in kind may be supplied, offered or promised to such persons unless they are inexpensive and relevant to the practice of medicine or pharmacy. Given the broad scope of these laws, our activities could be subject to scrutiny under the laws. If we were subject to allegations concerning, or were convicted of violating, these laws, our business could be harmed.

Data Privacy and Security

We may be subject to privacy and security laws in the various jurisdictions in which we operate, obtain or store personally identifiable information. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve, and there has been an increasing focus on privacy and data protection issues with the potential to affect our business. Our ongoing efforts to comply with evolving laws and regulations may be costly and require ongoing modifications to our policies, procedures and systems. Failure to comply with laws regarding data protection would expose us to risk of enforcement actions and penalties under such laws. Even if we are not determined to have violated these laws, government investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

Within the U.S., there are numerous federal and state laws and regulations related to the privacy and security of personal information. For example, at the federal level, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”), as amended, and its implementing regulations establish privacy and security standards that limit the use and disclosure of individually identifiable health information, or protected health information, and require the implementation of administrative, physical and technological safeguards to protect the privacy of protected health information. While we have determined that we are neither a “covered entity” nor a “business associate” directly subject to HIPAA, many of the U.S. health care providers with which we interact are subject to HIPAA, and we may have assumed obligations related to protecting the privacy of personal information. States are increasingly regulating the privacy and security of personal information. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act as amended and expanded by the California Privacy Rights Act (together, the “CPA”), gives California consumers (defined to include all California residents) certain rights, including the right to ask covered companies to disclose copies of personal information collected and delete a consumer’s personal information and requires covered companies to provide notice to California consumers regarding their data processing activities. The CPA places limitations on a covered company’s ability to sell personal information and share it for purposes of cross-context behavioral advertising. Similar laws are in operation or have been adopted in eleven other states.

In addition, we may be subject to privacy and security laws in the various jurisdictions in which we operate, obtain or store personally identifiable information. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve, and there has been an increasing focus on privacy and data protection issues with the potential to affect our business. For example, the processing of personal data relating to EEA citizens or in the context of the activities of an establishment in the EEA is subject to the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”). The GDPR increases obligations with respect to clinical trials conducted in the EEA, such as in relation to the provision of fair processing notices, responding to data subjects who exercise their rights and reporting certain data breaches to regulators and affected individuals. The GDPR also requires us to enter certain contractual arrangements with third parties that process GDPR-covered personal data on our behalf. The GDPR also increases the scrutiny applied to transfers of personal data from the EEA (including from clinical trial sites in the EEA) to countries that are considered by the EC to lack an adequate level of data protection, such as the U.S. Similar rules and requirements are applicable in the United Kingdom by virtue of section 3 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 and as amended by the Data Protection, Privacy and Electronic Communications (Amendments etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 (together, the “UK GDPR”). If our or our partners’ or service providers’ privacy or data security measures fail to comply with the requirements of the GDPR or UK GDPR, we may be subject to litigation, regulatory investigations, enforcement notices requiring us to change the way we use personal data and/or fines of up to EURO 20 million (£17.5 million in the U.K.) or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year,

-26-


 

whichever is higher, as well as claims by affected individuals, negative publicity, reputational harm and a potential loss of business and goodwill.

Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement

We have an ongoing dialogue with payors globally with the goal of obtaining broad coverage for our products. To date, payors’ policies on coverage for our products have varied widely, including policies that allow broad coverage per the respective product’s prescribing information, policies that provide limited coverage and policies that have denied coverage. The majority of payors have policies that provide for case-by-case coverage or restricted coverage. Our revenue depends, in part, upon the extent to which payors provide coverage for our products and the amount that payors, including government authorities or programs, private health insurers and other organizations, reimburse patients and healthcare providers for the cost of our products. Reimbursement coverage policies and inadequate reimbursement may reduce the demand for, or the price purchasers are willing to pay for, our or our partners’ products. Patients who are prescribed medications for the treatment of their conditions, and their prescribing physicians, generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their prescription drugs. Patients are unlikely to use our products unless coverage is provided, and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of such products.

Third Party Reimbursement and Pricing in the U.S.

Commercial Insurance. Coverage and reimbursement of our products vary from commercial payor to commercial payor. Many commercial payors, such as managed care plans, manage access to FDA approved products, and may use drug formularies and medical policies (which may include specific coverage requirements such as prior authorization, re-authorization and achieving performance metrics under value-based contracts) to control utilization. Exclusion from or restriction in coverage can reduce product usage.

Medicaid. Our products are eligible to be reimbursed by Medicaid. Medicaid is a joint federal and state program that is administered by the states for low income and disabled beneficiaries. Under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, participating manufacturers are required to pay a rebate for each unit of product reimbursed under the state Medicaid programs. The amount of the rebate for each product is set by law and depends in part on the prices at which our products are sold to certain other purchasers and may be subject to an additional discount if certain pricing increases more than inflation. State Medicaid programs and Medicaid managed care plans can seek additional “supplemental” rebates from manufacturers in connection with favorable positioning on formularies.

Medicare. Medicare is a federal program that is administered by the federal government that covers individuals age 65 and over, disabled individuals and individuals with certain conditions. Our products are eligible for reimbursement under Medicare Part B. Medicare Part B generally covers drugs that are usually administered by physicians or other clinicians. Medicare Part B pays for such drugs under a payment methodology based on the average sales price of the drugs. Reimbursement levels and reimbursement methodologies have come under scrutiny and may be subject to change. See “Government Regulation – Healthcare and Other Reform.” The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) are also increasingly bundling drug reimbursement into procedure costs, which can severely decrease the reimbursement rates for some manufacturers’ drugs.

Federal Purchasers. Drug products are subject to discounted pricing when purchased by federal agencies via the Federal Supply Schedule (“FSS”). FSS participation is required for a drug product to be covered and reimbursed by certain federal agencies and for coverage under Medicaid, Medicare Part B and the Public Health Service (“PHS”) 340B drug pricing program. FSS pricing is negotiated periodically with the Department of Veterans Affairs. FSS pricing is intended not to exceed the price that a manufacturer charges its most-favored non-federal customer for its product. In addition, prices for drugs purchased by the Veterans Administration, Department of Defense (including drugs purchased by military personnel and dependents through the TRICARE retail pharmacy program), Coast Guard, and PHS are subject to a cap on pricing (known as the “federal ceiling price”) and may be subject to an additional discount if pricing increases more than the rate of inflation.

-27-


 

PHS 340B Drug Pricing Program. To maintain coverage of drugs under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and Medicare Part B, manufacturers are required to extend discounts to certain purchasers under the PHS 340B drug pricing program. Purchasers eligible for discounts include hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of financially needy patients, community health clinics and other entities that receive health services grants from the PHS.

Healthcare and Other Reform. In the U.S., federal and state governments continue to propose and pass legislation designed to reform delivery of, or payment for, health care, which include initiatives to reduce the cost of healthcare. For example, in March 2010, the U.S. Congress enacted the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (the “Healthcare Reform Act”), which expanded health care coverage through Medicaid expansion, implemented the “individual mandate” for health insurance coverage (by imposing a tax penalty on individuals who did not obtain insurance) and changed the coverage and reimbursement of drug products under government healthcare programs.

Beyond the Healthcare Reform Act, there have been ongoing healthcare reform efforts. Drug pricing and payment reform was a focus of the Trump Administration and has been a focus of the Biden Administration. For example, federal legislation enacted in 2021 eliminates a statutory cap on Medicaid drug rebate program rebates effective January 1, 2024. As another example, the Inflation Reduction Act (“IRA”) of 2022 includes a number of changes intended to address rising prescription drug prices in Medicare Parts B and D, with varying implementation dates. These changes include caps on Medicare Part D out-of-pocket costs, Medicare Part B and Part D drug price inflation rebates, a new Medicare Part D manufacturer discount drug program (replacing the ACA Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program) and a drug price negotiation program for certain high spend Medicare Part B and D drugs (with the first list of drugs announced in 2023). Subsequent to the enactment of the IRA, in 2022, the Biden Administration released an executive order directing the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) to report on how the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (“CMMI”) could be leveraged to test new models for lowering drug costs for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. The report was issued in 2023 and proposed various models that CMMI is currently developing which seek to lower the cost of drugs, promote accessibility, and improve quality of care, models are currently still in development. One of the models proposed that states could allow CMS to structure and administer multi-state outcomes-based arrangements in Medicaid with manufacturers of cell and gene therapy.

Healthcare reform efforts have been and may continue to be subject to scrutiny and legal challenge. For example, with respect to the Healthcare Reform Act, tax reform legislation was enacted that eliminated the tax penalty established for individuals who do not maintain mandated health insurance coverage beginning in 2019 and, in 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the latest judicial challenge to the ACA brought by several states without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the Healthcare Reform Act. As another example, revisions to regulations under the federal anti-kickback statute would remove protection for traditional Medicare Part D discounts offered by pharmaceutical manufacturers to pharmacy benefit managers and health plans. Pursuant to court order, the removal was delayed and recent legislation imposed a moratorium on implementation of the rule until January 2032. As another example, the IRA drug price negotiation program has been challenged in litigation filed by various pharmaceutical manufacturers and industry groups.

Adoption of new healthcare reform legislation at the federal or state level could affect demand for, or pricing of, our products or product candidates if approved for sale. We cannot predict, however, the ultimate content, timing or effect of any healthcare reform legislation or action, or its impact on us, and healthcare reform could increase compliance costs and may adversely affect our future business and financial results.

There have also been efforts by government officials or legislators to implement measures to regulate prices or payment for pharmaceutical products, including legislation on drug importation. Recently, there has been considerable public and government scrutiny of pharmaceutical pricing and proposals to address the perceived high cost of pharmaceuticals. There have also been recent state legislative efforts to address drug costs, which generally have focused on increasing transparency around drug costs or limiting drug prices. Certain state legislation has been subject to legal challenges. Adoption of new legislation regulating drug pricing at the federal or state level could further affect demand for, or pricing of, our products.

General legislative cost control measures may also affect reimbursement for our products. The Budget Control Act of 2011, as amended, resulted in the imposition of reductions in Medicare (but not Medicaid) payments to providers in 2013 and remains in effect through 2031 (except May 1, 2020 to March 31, 2022) unless additional Congressional action is taken. Any significant spending reductions affecting Medicare, Medicaid or other publicly funded or subsidized health programs that may be implemented and/or any significant taxes or fees that may be imposed on us could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

Third Party Reimbursement and Pricing outside the U.S.

We currently have two products approved for marketing outside the U.S. EXONDYS 51 has been approved for marketing in the U.S., Israel and Kuwait and AMONDYS 45 has been approved for marketing in the U.S. and Kuwait. We may need to conduct long-term pharmacoeconomic studies in order to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of our products.

In the EU and certain other territories, price controls and Health Technology Assessments for new, highly priced medicines are expected, and in some cases, mandated. Criteria such as cost-effectiveness, cost per quality-adjusted life year, budget impact, or others, in addition to the clinical benefit, are often required to demonstrate added value or benefit of a drug and vary by country.

EU member states may approve a specific price for a product, by, for example, international reference pricing, or they may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the product on the market. Other

-28-


 

member states allow companies to fix their own prices for products but monitor and control prescription volumes and issue guidance on prescribing criteria to physicians, having an effect on restricting prescriptions or usage. Recently, many countries in the EU have decided to apply significant discounts to prices of pharmaceuticals and these efforts could continue as countries attempt to manage healthcare expenditures. Political, economic and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations. Third party reimbursement limits may reduce the demand for our products. The pace of the application process in some countries could also delay commercial product launches. Gaining acceptance of our product pipeline and economically viable reimbursement terms in the EU and other markets will require strong education and awareness efforts around Duchenne as well as strong data supporting its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. In particular, certain countries may require the completion of additional studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of a particular product candidate to currently available therapies in order to obtain reimbursement or pricing approval. Parallel trade, i.e., arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced EU member states, can further reduce prices. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any products, if approved in those countries.

Competition

The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are intensely competitive, and any product or product candidate developed by us competes or would likely compete with existing drugs and therapies. There are many pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, public and private universities, government agencies and research organizations that compete with us in developing various approaches to the treatment of rare, neuromuscular and other diseases. Many of these organizations have substantially greater financial, technical, manufacturing and sales and marketing resources than we have. Several of them have developed or are developing therapies that could be used for treatment of the same diseases that we are targeting. In addition, some of these competitors have significantly greater commercial infrastructures than we have. Our ability to compete successfully depends largely on:

the efficacy, safety and reliability of our products and product candidates;
the dosing, strength, convenience and other product profile attributes of our products and product candidates;
product acceptance by physicians and other health-care providers;
protection of our proprietary rights and the level of generic or innovative competition;
the ability to have freedom to operate to commercialize our products and product candidates;
our ability to supply commercial quantities of a product meeting FDA specifications to the market and the cost of supplying our products and product candidates;
our ability to complete clinical development and obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;
obtaining reimbursement for product use in approved indications and the price of our products;
our ability to recruit and retain skilled employees; and
the availability of substantial capital resources to fund development and commercialization activities.

EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53 and AMONDYS 45 were the first three disease modifying therapeutics approved by the FDA for the treatment of Duchenne for patients with a confirmed mutation that is amenable to exon 51 skipping, exon 53 skipping or exon 45 skipping, respectively. ELEVIDYS was the first gene therapy approved for the treatment of patients aged 4 through 5 years with Duchenne with a confirmed mutation in the Duchenne gene. However, in the field of Duchenne alone, these products and those in our pipeline face a variety of competitors who either have FDA approval or are being clinically developed for the treatment of Duchenne. For example, Nippon Shinyaku Co. Ltd. (“Nippon”) announced on August 13, 2020 that the FDA approved VILTEPSO (viltolarsen) injection for patients with Duchenne who are amenable to exon 53 skipping therapy. On March 25, 2020, Nippon announced that the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare approved Viltepso Intravenous Infusion 250 mg (viltolarsen) for the treatment of patients with Duchenne who are amendable to exon 53 skipping therapy making it the first non-steroidal treatment for Duchenne approved in Japan. Nippon has announced plans to pursue global registration for viltolarsen. Beyond Viltolarsen, Nippon is developing NS-089 and NS-050 for the treatment of patients living with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy that have mutations amenable to exons 44 and 50, respectively.

In addition, there are many companies who have announced clinical development plans for the treatment of Duchenne, including the following:

Wave Life Sciences (“Wave”) announced in December 2023 that it initiated dosing in a Phase 2 potentially registrational, open-label clinical trial evaluating WVE-N531, its exon 53 skipping product candidate.
Daiichi Sankyo (“Daiichi”) announced a Phase 1/2 clinical trial conducted in Japan for its exon 45 skipping oligonucleotide candidate, DS-5141b. In April 2018, Daiichi announced top-line results of the Phase 1/2 clinical trial of DS-5141 and that Daiichi will continue to develop DS-5141b. Daiichi is sponsoring a Phase 2 clinical trial of DS-5141b.
Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”), presented initial Phase 1b clinical data for its AAV-9 / mini-dystrophin gene transfer product candidate for Duchenne, PF-06939926/BMB-D0016, in June 2019. In January 2021, Pfizer announced the first dose of its

-29-


 

Phase 3 CIFFREO study that will evaluate the efficacy and safety of PF-06939926 in boys with Duchenne. The Phase 3 trial is ongoing.
Dyne Therapeutics is in clinical trials for Dyne-251 for the treatment of patients living with Duchenne that have mutations amenable to exon 51 skipping.
Avidity Biosciences, Inc. is in clinical trials for AOC 1044 for the treatment of patients living with Duchenne that have mutations amenable to exon 44 skipping.
PepGen is in clinical trials for PGN-ED051 for the treatment of patients living with Duchenne that have mutations amenable to exon 51.
Entrada Therapeutics is in clinical trials for ENTR-601-44 for the treatment of patients living with Duchenne that have mutations amenable to exon 44.
Regenxbio is in clinical trials for RGX-202 for the treatment of patients living with Duchenne.

There are several companies in addition to those mentioned above that are pursuing disease modifying programs for Duchenne that are at the pre-clinical stage or clinical stage. For example, Solid Biosciences filed an IND for SGT-003 for the treatment of patients living with Duchenne. These companies are pursuing oligonucleotides, gene transfer therapy or gene editing. Other companies continue to pursue development and approval of products for the treatment of Duchenne and their products may or may not prove to be safer and/or more efficacious than the products and product candidates in our Duchenne pipeline. Regarding any of these competitors, it is unknown if clinical development of these or other compounds is planned or would be continued.

Additionally, companies have product candidates with mechanisms of action distinct from ours in different stages of development or approval in Duchenne which we believe could be seen as complementary to exon skipping and not a direct replacement of our products or product candidates at this time. We also believe that other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies share a focus on RNA-targeted, gene therapy and gene editing drug discovery and development.

Several companies and institutions have also entered into collaborations or other agreements for the development of product candidates, including, but not limited to, gene therapy, gene editing, RNA, small molecule, cell therapy or antibody therapeutics that are potential competitors to therapies being developed by us in the muscular dystrophy, neuromuscular, CNS and rare disease space.

For additional information on the various risks posed by competition, refer to Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Human Capital Resources

Our urgent mission – to engineer precision genetic medicine for rare diseases that devastate lives and cut futures short – is dependent on our ability to attract, develop and retain the industry’s best and brightest talent across all dimensions of diversity. This understanding informs our approach to managing our human capital resources.

General Information. As of December 31, 2023, we had 1,314 employees globally, 659 of whom hold advanced degrees. Of these employees, 877 are engaged directly in research and development activities and 437 are in selling and general and administration. Our voluntary employee turnover rate for 2023 was 3.39%. None of our employees in the U.S. are covered by collective bargaining agreements and we consider relations with our employees to be good.

Equity, diversity, and inclusion. We promote diversity, inclusion and equity across the organization. In the area of gender diversity, representation of women has increased over the past several years: in 2020 women made up 55% of our workforce, and in 2021, this percentage increased to 56%. As of December 31, 2022 and 2023, women made up 57% of our workforce. The number of women in leadership positions has also increased over time. In 2020, women represented 47% of the leadership positions at the

-30-


 

Director level and above. This percentage increased to 48% in 2021,and 52% in each of 2022 and 2023. In addition, as of December 31, 2023, women held 25% of the seats of our Board of Directors, including the Chair of the Board.

Racial and ethnic diversity has also increased in the past few years, from 30% of our workforce being racially/ethnically diverse in 2020 and 2021, and 34% in 2022 and 2023.

As of December 31, 2023, 63% of our Executive Committee, which represents the most senior leadership positions in the Company, is diverse based on gender and ethnicity.

Compensation, Benefits and Ongoing Professional Development. We face intense competition for qualified and specialized employees from other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, universities and government entities, and we are committed to rewarding, supporting, and developing our employees who make it possible to deliver on our strategy. To that end, we offer a comprehensive total rewards package that includes market-competitive pay, broad-based equity grants and bonuses, healthcare benefits, retirement savings plans, paid time off and family leave, caregiving support, fitness subsidies, and an Employee Assistance Program. We also offer robust learning opportunities for employees at every stage in their career and provide annual training to employees on various topics.

In recognition of the ongoing challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, we have taken various steps to support our employees, including transitioning to remote/hybrid work and offering flexible schedules, childcare assistance and sessions focused on resilience and happiness in uncertain times. At the same time, we continue to take steps to protect our facility-dependent employees to ensure they remain healthy and feel supported and safe in our facilities.

General Corporate Information

We were originally incorporated in the State of Oregon on July 22, 1980, and on June 6, 2013, we reincorporated in the State of Delaware. Our principal executive offices are located at 215 First Street, Suite 415, Cambridge, MA 02142 and our telephone number is (617) 274-4000. Our common stock is quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “SRPT”.

While we achieve revenue from our products in the U.S. and through distribution of our products through our EAP outside the U.S., we may incur operating losses in the near term associated with our ongoing operations, research and development activities and potential business development activities. For more information about our revenues and operating losses, see Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $1,691.8 million of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and investments, consisting of $428.4 million of cash and cash equivalents, $1,247.8 million of short-term investments and $15.6 million of long-term restricted cash. We believe that our balance of cash, cash equivalents and investments is sufficient to fund our current operational plan for at least the next 12 months. In addition to pursuing additional cash resources through public or private financings, we may also seek to enter into contracts, including collaborations or licensing agreements with respect to our technologies, with third parties, including government entities.

Where You Can Find Additional Information

We make available free of charge through our corporate website, www.sarepta.com, our annual reports, quarterly reports, current reports, proxy statements and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed or furnished with the SEC. These reports may also be obtained without charge by submitting a written request via mail to Investor Relations, Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc., 215 First Street, Suite 415, Cambridge, MA 02142 or by e-mail to investorrelations@sarepta.com. Our internet website and the information contained therein or incorporated therein are not intended to be incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding reports that we file or furnish electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.

We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and written charters for our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. Each of the foregoing is available on our website at www.sarepta.com under “For Investors—Corporate Governance.” In accordance with SEC rules, we intend to disclose any amendment (other than any technical, administrative, or other non-substantive amendment) to the above code, or any waiver of any provision thereof with respect to any of our executive officers, on our website within four business days following such amendment or waiver. In addition, we may use our website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation Fair Disclosure promulgated by the SEC. These disclosures will be included on our website under the “For Investors” section.

-31-


 

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Set forth below and elsewhere in this report and in other documents we file with the SEC are descriptions of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this report. Because of the following factors, as well as other variables affecting our operating results, past financial performance should not be considered a reliable indicator of future performance and investors should not use historical trends to anticipate results or trends in future periods. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing us. Other events that we do not currently anticipate or that we currently deem immaterial also affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Business

We are highly dependent on the commercial success of our products in the U.S. We may not be able to meet expectations with respect to sales of our products or maintain profitability and positive cash-flow from operations.

The FDA granted accelerated approval for EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53, AMONDYS 45 and ELEVIDYS, respectively, as therapeutic treatments for Duchenne in patients who have a confirmed mutation in the dystrophin gene that is amenable to exon 51, exon 53, exon 45 skipping, and ambulatory pediatric patients aged four through five years with Duchenne with a confirmed mutation in the Duchenne gene, respectively. EXONDYS 51 has been approved for marketing in the U.S., Israel and Kuwait, AMONDYS 45 in the U.S. and Kuwait, and VYONDYS 53 and ELEVIDYS have been approved for marketing only in the U.S. Our commercial PMO products are also available in additional countries through our EAP. The commercial success of our products continues to depend on, and the commercial success of any future products would depend on, a number of factors attributable to one of our products or the products of our competitors, including, but not limited to:

the effectiveness of our sales, managed markets, marketing efforts and support for our products;
the generation and dissemination of new data analyses and the consistency of any new data with prior results, whether they support a favorable safety, efficacy and effectiveness profile of our products and any potential impact on our FDA accelerated approval status and/or FDA package insert for our products;
the effectiveness of our ongoing commercialization activities, including negotiating and entering into any additional commercial, supply and distribution contracts, ongoing manufacturing efforts and hiring any additional personnel as needed to support commercial efforts;
our ability to timely comply with FDA post-marketing requirements and commitments, including through successfully conducting additional studies that confirm clinical efficacy, effectiveness and safety of our products and acceptance of the same by the FDA and medical community since continued approval may be contingent upon verification of a clinical benefit in confirmatory trials, particularly in light of FDA's expanded expedited withdrawal procedures as set forth in FDORA;
the occurrence of any side effects, adverse reactions or misuse, or any unfavorable publicity in these areas;
the generation of evidence describing payers, patients and/or societal value of our products;
whether we can consistently manufacture our products and product candidates at acceptable costs;
the rate and consistency with which our products are prescribed by physicians, which depends on physicians’ views on the safety, effectiveness and efficacy of our products;
our ability to secure and maintain adequate reimbursement for our products, including the duration of the prior-authorization as well as the number and duration of re-authorization processes required for patients who initially obtained coverage by third parties, including by government payors, managed care organizations and private health insurers;
our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection for our products, to preserve our trade secrets, to prevent third parties from infringing on our proprietary rights and to operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of third parties;
the development, commercialization or pricing of competing products or therapies for the treatment of Duchenne, or its symptoms, and the existence of competing clinical trials;
our ability to increase awareness of the importance of genetic testing and knowing/understanding Duchenne mutations, and identifying and addressing procedural barriers to obtaining therapy;
our ability to remain compliant with laws and regulations that apply to us and our commercial activities;

-32-


 

the actual market-size, ability to identify patients and the demographics of patients eligible for our products, which may be different than expected;
the sufficiency of our drug supply to meet commercial and clinical demands and standards, which are negatively impacted by various factors, including when our projections on the potential number of amenable patients and their average weight are inaccurate; the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic; if regulatory requirements increase our drug supply needs; if our current drug supply is destroyed or negatively impacted at our manufacturing sites, storage sites or in transit; failure to meet cGMP requirements; or if we encounter delays expanding the number of patients on our products and portions of our products’ supply expire before sale;
our ability to obtain regulatory approvals to commercialize our product candidates, and to commercialize our products in markets outside of the U.S.;
the process leading to a patient’s first infusion of our products and any future commercial products may be slower for certain patients. For example, the time to first infusion may take longer if a patient chooses to put in an intravenous port, which eases access to the vein. Delays in the process prior to first infusion could negatively impact the sales of our products, including any future gene therapy products; and
the exercise by Roche of its option to obtain an exclusive license to commercialize one or more of our Duchenne products beyond ELEVIDYS outside of the U.S. and Roche’s subsequent commercialization efforts.

We experience significant fluctuations in sales of our products from period to period and, ultimately, we may never generate sufficient revenues from our products to maintain profitability or sustain our anticipated levels of operations.

Even though EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53, AMONDYS 45 and ELEVIDYS have received accelerated approval from the FDA, they face future post-approval development and regulatory requirements, which present additional challenges for us to successfully navigate.

The accelerated approvals for EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53 and AMONDYS 45 granted by the FDA were based on an increase in the surrogate biomarker of dystrophin in skeletal muscles observed in some patients treated with these products. The accelerated approval for ELEVIDYS granted by the FDA was based on an effect on the surrogate endpoint of expression of the protein produced by ELEVIDYS. These products are subject to ongoing FDA requirements governing labeling, packaging, storage, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping, and we are required to submit additional safety, efficacy and other post-marketing information to the FDA.

Under the accelerated approval pathway, continued approval may be contingent upon verification of a clinical benefit in confirmatory trials. These post-approval requirements and commitments may not be feasible and/or could impose significant burdens and costs on us; could negatively impact our development, manufacturing and supply of our products; and could negatively impact our financial results. Failure to meet post-approval commitments and requirements, including completion of enrollment and in particular, any failure to obtain positive safety and efficacy data from our ongoing and planned studies of our products, would lead to negative regulatory action from the FDA and/or withdrawal of regulatory approval of EXONDYS 51, VYONDYS 53, AMONDYS 45 or ELEVIDYS. The recently enacted FDORA has expanded FDA's expedited withdrawal procedures for drugs approved via the accelerated approval pathway if a sponsor fails to conduct any required post-approval study with due diligence.

Manufacturers of drug products and their facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMP regulations. Drug product manufacturers are required to continuously monitor and report adverse events from clinical trials and commercial use of the product. If we or a regulatory agency discover previously unknown adverse events or events of unanticipated severity or frequency, a regulatory agency may require labeling changes, implementation of risk evaluation and mitigation strategy program, or additional post-marketing studies or clinical trials. If we or a regulatory agency discover previously unknown problems with a product, such as problems with a facility where the API or drug product is manufactured or tested, a regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product and/or the manufacturer, including removal of specific product lots from the market, withdrawal of the product from the market, suspension of manufacturing or suspension of clinical trials using the same manufacturing materials. Sponsors of drugs approved under FDA accelerated approval provisions also are required to submit to the FDA, at least 30 days before initial use, all promotional materials intended for use after the first 120 days following marketing approval. If we or the manufacturing facilities for our products fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency may:

issue warning letters or untitled letters;
seek an injunction or impose civil or criminal penalties or monetary fines;
suspend or withdraw or alter the conditions of our marketing approval;

-33-


 

mandate modifications to promotional materials or require us to provide corrective information to healthcare practitioners;
suspend any ongoing clinical trials;
require us to enter into a consent decree, which can include imposition of various fines, reimbursements for inspection costs, required due dates for specific actions and penalties for noncompliance;
refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to applications submitted by us;
suspend or impose restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements;
seize or detain products, refuse to permit the import or export of products or require us to initiate a product recall; or
refuse to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts.

We are subject to uncertainty relating to reimbursement policies which, if not favorable, could hinder or prevent the commercial success of our products and/or product candidates.

Our ability to successfully maintain and/or increase sales of our products in the U.S. depends in part on the coverage and reimbursement levels set by governmental authorities, private health insurers and other third-party payors. Third party payors are increasingly challenging the effectiveness of and prices charged for medical products and services. We may not be able to obtain or maintain adequate third-party coverage or reimbursement for our products, and/or we may be required to provide discounts or rebates on our products in order to obtain or maintain adequate coverage.

We expect that private insurers will continue to consider the efficacy, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of our products, including any new data and analyses that we are able to collect and make available in a compliant manner, in determining whether to approve reimbursement for our products and at what levels. If there are considerable delays in the generation of new evidence or if any new data and information we collect is not favorable, third party insurers may make coverage decisions that negatively impact sales of our products. We continue to have discussions with payors, some of which may eventually deny coverage. We may not receive approval for reimbursement of our products from additional insurers on a satisfactory rate or basis, in which case our business would be materially adversely affected. In addition, obtaining these approvals can be a time consuming and expensive process. Our business would be materially adversely affected if we are not able to maintain favorable coverage decisions and/or fail to receive additional favorable coverage decisions from third party insurers, in particular during re-authorization processes for patients that have already initiated therapy. Our business could also be adversely affected if government health programs, private health insurers, including managed care organizations, or other reimbursement bodies or payors limit the indications for which our products will be reimbursed or fail to recognize accelerated approval and surrogate endpoints as clinically meaningful.

Furthermore, we cannot predict to what extent an economic recession, changes in fiscal policy or general increase in unemployment rates may disrupt global healthcare systems and access to our products or result in a widespread loss of individual health insurance coverage due to unemployment or trends in employee attrition, a shift from commercial payor coverage to government payor coverage, or an increase in demand for patient assistance and/or free drug programs, any of which would adversely affect access to our products and our net sales.

In some foreign countries, particularly Canada and the countries of Europe, Latin America and Asia Pacific, the pricing and reimbursement of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to strict governmental control. In these countries, pricing and reimbursement negotiations with governmental authorities can take 12 to 24 months or longer after the receipt of regulatory approval and product launch. In order to obtain favorable reimbursement for the indications sought or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to collect additional data, including conducting additional studies. Furthermore, several countries around the world have implemented government measures to either freeze or reduce pricing of pharmaceutical products. If reimbursement for our products is unavailable in any country in which reimbursement is sought, limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be materially harmed. In addition, many foreign countries reference to other countries’ official public list price, hence an unsatisfactory price level in one country could consequently impinge negatively upon overall revenue.

We expect to experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of our current and future products due to a number of factors, including current and future healthcare reforms and initiatives by government health programs and private insurers (including managed care plans) to reduce healthcare costs, the scrutiny of pharmaceutical pricing, the ongoing debates on reducing government spending and additional legislative proposals. These healthcare reform efforts or any future legislation or regulatory actions aimed at controlling and reducing healthcare costs, including through measures designed to limit reimbursement, restrict access or impose unfavorable pricing modifications on pharmaceutical products, could impact our and our partners’ ability to obtain or maintain reimbursement for our products at satisfactory levels, or at all, which could materially harm our business and financial results.

-34-


 

Additionally, ELEVIDYS and our gene therapy product candidates represent novel approaches to treatment that will call for new levels of innovation in both pricing, reimbursement, payment and drug access strategies. Current reimbursement models may not accommodate the unique factors of our gene therapy product and product candidates, including high up-front costs, lack of long-term efficacy and safety data and fees associated with complex administration, dosing and patient monitoring requirements. Hence, it may be necessary to restructure approaches to payment, pricing strategies and traditional payment models to support these therapies.

The downward pressure on healthcare costs in general has become intense. As a result, increasingly high barriers are being erected to the entry of new products. If we are unable to obtain adequate levels of reimbursement, our ability to successfully market and sell our products and product candidates will be harmed. The manner and level at which reimbursement is provided for services related to our products and product candidates (e.g., for administration of our products to patients) is also important. Inadequate reimbursement for such services may lead to physician resistance and limit our ability to market or sell our products.

Healthcare policy reform and other governmental and private payor initiatives may have an adverse effect upon, and could prevent commercial success of our products and product candidates.

The U.S. government and individual states continue to aggressively pursue healthcare reform, which includes ongoing attempts to manage utilization as well as control and/or lower the cost of prescription drugs and biologics. See “Item 1. Business – Government Regulation – Third Party Reimbursement and Pricing in the U.S.” There is no assurance that federal or state health care reform will not adversely affect our future business and financial results, and we cannot predict how future federal or state legislative, judicial or administrative changes relating to healthcare policy will affect our business.

The U.S. government, state legislatures and foreign governments have shown significant interest in implementing cost-containment programs to limit the growth of government-paid and private insurance healthcare costs, including proposed or implemented reforms involving price controls, waivers from Medicaid drug rebate law requirements, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products for branded prescription drugs and implementing new requirements for, or eliminating caps on, rebates paid on products under government healthcare programs. We anticipate that the Biden Administration and Congress, state legislatures and the private sector will continue to consider and may adopt healthcare policies intended to curb rising healthcare costs, and specifically prescription drug costs. These cost containment measures may include, among other possible actions, implementation or modification of:

controls on government funded reimbursement for drugs;
caps or mandatory discounts under certain government sponsored programs;
caps on drug reimbursement under commercial insurance;
challenges to the pricing of drugs or limits or prohibitions on reimbursement for specific products through other means;
reform of drug importation laws;
delegation of decision making to state Medicaid agencies and waiver of reimbursement requirements;
expansion of use of managed care systems in which healthcare providers contract to provide comprehensive healthcare for a fixed cost per person; and
prohibition on direct-to-consumer advertising or drug marketing practices.

In recent years, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their commercial products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted state and federal legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for pharmaceutical products.

We are unable to predict what additional legislation, regulations or policies, if any, relating to the healthcare industry or third party coverage and reimbursement may be enacted in the future or what effect such legislation, regulations or policies would have on our business. Any cost containment measures, including those listed above, or other healthcare system reforms that are adopted, could significantly decrease the available coverage and the price we might establish for our products and product candidates, which would have an adverse effect on our net revenues and operating results.

-35-


 

Our products may not be widely adopted by patients, payors or healthcare providers, which would adversely impact our potential profitability and future business prospects.

The commercial success of our products, particularly in the U.S., depends upon the level of market adoption by patients, payors and healthcare providers. If our products do not achieve an adequate level of market adoption for any reason, or if market adoption does not persist, our potential profitability and our future business prospects will be severely adversely impacted. The degree of market acceptance of our products depends on a number of factors, including:

our ability to demonstrate to the medical and payor community, including specialists who may purchase or prescribe our products, the clinical efficacy, effectiveness and safety of our products as the prescription products of choice for their respective indications;
the effectiveness of our sales and marketing organizations and distribution networks;
the ability of patients or providers to be adequately reimbursed for our products in a timely manner from government and private payors;
the ability to timely demonstrate to the satisfaction of payors real world effectiveness and the economic, humanistic and societal benefits of our products;
the burden or efficiency of payer prior authorization processes and the ability of families and physicians to navigate them;
the actual and perceived efficacy and safety profile of our products, particularly if unanticipated adverse events related to our products’ treatment arise and create safety concerns among potential patients or prescribers or if new data and analyses we obtain for our products do not support, or are interpreted by some parties to not support, the efficacy of our products; and
the efficacy and safety of our other exon-skipping and gene therapy product candidates and third parties’ competitive therapies.

Further, the potential commercial success of our product candidates, including ELEVIDYS, will depend on additional factors, including the capacity of any infusion centers responsible for the administration of our product candidates.

ELEVIDYS and our gene therapy product candidates may be perceived as unsafe or may result in unforeseen adverse events. Failure of other gene therapy programs, negative public opinion and increased regulatory scrutiny of gene therapy may damage public perception of the safety of ELEVIDYS or our gene therapy product candidates and harm our ability to conduct our business or obtain regulatory approvals for ELEVIDYS or our gene therapy product candidates.

Gene therapy remains a newly applied technology, with only a few gene therapy products approved to date in the U.S., the EU or elsewhere, including ELEVIDYS. Public perception may be influenced by claims that gene therapy is unsafe, and gene therapy may not gain the acceptance of the public or the medical community. In particular, our success will depend upon physicians who specialize in the treatment of genetic diseases targeted by our product candidates, prescribing treatments that involve the use of our product candidates in lieu of, or in addition to, existing treatments with which they are familiar and for which greater clinical data may be available.

In addition, ethical, social and legal concerns about gene therapy, genetic testing and genetic research could result in additional regulations or prohibiting the processes we may use. Federal and state agencies, congressional committees and foreign governments have expressed their intentions to further regulate biotechnology. More restrictive regulations or claims that our products or product candidates are unsafe or pose a hazard could prevent us from commercializing any products. New government requirements may be established that could delay or prevent regulatory approval of our product candidates under development. It is impossible to predict whether legislative changes will be enacted, regulations, policies or guidance changed, or interpretations by agencies or courts changed, or what the impact of such changes, if any, may be.

More restrictive government regulations or negative public opinion would harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and may delay or impair the development and commercialization of our gene therapy product candidates or demand ELEVIDYS or any other products we may develop. For example, earlier gene therapy trials led to several well-publicized adverse events, including death. Lack of efficacy and/or serious adverse events related to clinical trials we, our strategic partners or other companies conduct, even if such adverse events are not ultimately attributable to the relevant product candidates or products, and/or failed commercialization of gene therapy products may result in increased government regulation, unfavorable public perception, potential regulatory delays in the testing or approval of our product candidates, stricter labeling requirements for those product candidates that are approved and a decrease in demand for any such product candidates.

-36-


 

We may not be able to expand the global footprint of our products outside of the U.S.

EXONDYS 51 has been approved for marketing only in the U.S., Israel and Kuwait, AMONDYS 45 in the U.S. and Kuwait, and VYONDYS 53 and ELEVIDYS have been approved for marketing only in the U.S. We may not receive approval to commercialize these products in additional countries. In November 2016, we submitted a MAA for eteplirsen to the EMA and the application was validated in December 2016. As we announced on June 1, 2018, the CHMP of the EMA adopted a negative opinion for eteplirsen. In September 2018, the CHMP of the EMA confirmed its negative opinion for eteplirsen, and the European Commission adopted the CHMP opinion in December 2018. During 2019, we sought follow-up EMA scientific advice for eteplirsen. Once data from our ongoing studies are available, we plan to evaluate future engagement with the EMA on potential next steps.

In order to market any product in a country outside of the U.S., we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements for approval in those countries regarding demonstration of evidence of the product’s safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, labeling, distribution, advertising, and promotion, as well as pricing and reimbursement of the product. Obtaining marketing approval in a country outside of the U.S. is an extensive, lengthy, expensive and uncertain process, and the regulatory authority may reject an application or delay, limit or deny approval of any of our products for many reasons, including:

we may not be able to demonstrate to the satisfaction of regulatory authorities outside the U.S. the risk benefit of our products;
the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical or clinical significance required for approval by regulatory authorities outside the U.S.;
regulatory authorities outside the U.S. may disagree with the adequacy (number, design, size, controls, conduct or implementation) of our clinical trials prior to granting approval, and we may not be able to generate the required data on a timely basis, or at all;
regulatory authorities outside the U.S. may conclude that data we submit to them fail to demonstrate an appropriate level of safety or efficacy of our products, or that our products’ respective clinical benefits outweigh their safety risks;
regulatory authorities outside the U.S. may not accept data generated at our clinical trial sites or require us to generate additional data or information;
regulatory authorities outside the U.S. may impose limitations or restrictions on the approved labeling of our products, thus limiting intended users or providing an additional hurdle for market acceptance of the product;
regulatory authorities outside the U.S. may identify deficiencies in the manufacturing processes, or may require us to change our manufacturing process or specifications; and
regulatory authorities outside the U.S. may adopt new or revised approval policies and regulations.

Approval procedures vary among countries and can involve additional product testing and additional administrative review periods. The time required to obtain approval in other countries might differ significantly from that required to obtain approval in the U.S. In particular, in many foreign countries, it is required that a product receives pricing and reimbursement approval before the product can be distributed commercially. Many foreign countries undertake cost-containment measures that could affect pricing or reimbursement of our products. This can result in substantial delays, and the price that is ultimately approved in some countries may be lower than the price for which we expect to offer our products.

Marketing approval in one country does not ensure marketing approval in another, but a failure or delay in obtaining marketing approval in one country may have a negative effect on the approval process in others. Failure to obtain marketing approval in other countries or any delay or setback in obtaining such approval would impair our ability to develop foreign markets for our products and could adversely affect our business and financial condition. In addition, failure to obtain approval in one country or area may affect sales under the EAP in other countries or areas. Even if we are successful in obtaining regulatory approval of our products in additional countries, our revenue earning capacity will depend on commercial and medical infrastructure, pricing and reimbursement negotiations and decisions with third party payors, including government payors.

In addition, we have granted Roche an exclusive option to obtain an exclusive license to commercialize certain products, including eteplirsen, golodirsen and casimersen, outside of the U.S. If this option is exercised, Roche will have sole control over and decision-making authority with respect to the commercialization of such products outside the U.S.

-37-


 

Historical revenues from eteplirsen, golodirsen and casimersen through our EAP outside the U.S. may not continue and we may not be able to continue to distribute our products through our EAP.

We established a global EAP for our products in some countries where these products currently have not been approved. While we generate revenue from the distribution of these products through our EAP, we cannot predict whether historical revenues from this program will continue, whether we will be able to continue to distribute our products through our EAP, or whether revenues will exceed revenues historically generated from sales through our EAP. Reimbursement through national EAPs may cease to be available if authorization for an EAP expires or is terminated. For example, healthcare providers in EAP jurisdictions may not be convinced that their patients benefit sufficiently from our products or alternatively, may prefer to wait until such time as our products are approved by a regulatory authority in their country before prescribing any of our products. Even if a healthcare provider is interested in obtaining access to our products for its patient through the EAP, the patient may not be able to obtain access to our products if funding for the drug is not secured.

Our business and financial results have not yet been materially adversely affected by the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, or the conflict in the Middle-East. As our revenue from countries outside of the United States increases, our access to patients in those regions through our EAP and our ability to generate revenue from commercial sales of our products in Russia, Ukraine or the Middle East may be adversely affected. The United States and other nations have raised the possibility of sanctions on companies that do business with Russia or its allies, including Belarus. We also may be adversely impacted by sanctions imposed on third parties with which we do business, such as third-party distributors and service providers of our EAP.

Any failure to maintain revenues from sales of our products through our EAP and/or to generate revenues from commercial sales of these products exceeding historical sales due to issues under our EAP or due to global instability, like that resulting from the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine or the instability in the Middle-East, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

Failure to obtain or maintain regulatory exclusivity for our products could result in our inability to protect our products from competition and our business may be adversely impacted. If a competitor obtains an authorization to market the same or substantially same product before a product of ours is authorized in a given country and is granted regulatory exclusivity, then our product may not be authorized for sale as a result of the competitor’s regulatory exclusivity and as a result, our investment in the development of that product may not be returned.

In addition to any patent protection, we rely on various forms of regulatory exclusivity to protect our products. During the development of our products, we anticipate any one form of regulatory exclusivities becoming available upon approval of our products. Implementation and enforcement of regulatory exclusivity, which may consist of regulatory data protection and market protection, varies widely from country to country. Failure to qualify for regulatory exclusivity, or failure to obtain or maintain the extent or duration of such protections that we expect in each of the markets for our products due to challenges, changes or interpretations in the law or otherwise, could affect our revenues for our products or our decision on whether to market our products in a particular country or countries or could otherwise have an adverse impact on our results of operations. We are not guaranteed to receive or maintain regulatory exclusivity for our current or future products, and if our products that are granted orphan status were to lose their status as orphan drugs or the data or marketing exclusivity provided for orphan drugs, our business and operations could be adversely affected.

Due to the nature of our products and product candidate pipeline, in addition to new chemical entity (“NCE”) exclusivity and new biologic exclusivity, orphan drug exclusivity is especially important for our products that are eligible for orphan drug designation. For eligible products, we plan to rely on orphan drug exclusivity to maintain a competitive position. If we do not have adequate patent protection for our products, then the relative importance of obtaining regulatory exclusivity is even greater. While orphan status for any of our products, if granted or maintained, would provide market exclusivity for the time periods specified above upon approval, we would not be able to exclude other companies from obtaining regulatory approval of products using the same or similar active ingredient for the same indication during or beyond the exclusivity period applicable to our product on the basis of orphan drug status (e.g., seven years in the U.S.). For example, the exclusivity period for EXONDYS 51 ended September 2023. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug, nor gives the drug any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process. A recent decision in 2021 by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit in Catalyst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. vs. Becerra regarding interpretation of the Orphan Drug Act’s exclusivity provisions as applied to drugs and biologics approved for orphan indications narrower than the product’s orphan designation has the potential to significantly broaden the scope of orphan exclusivity for such products. Depending on how FDA applies the Catalyst decision, it could impact our ability to obtain or seek to work around orphan exclusivity and might affect our ability to retain orphan exclusivity that the FDA previously has recognized for our products. Legislation has been introduced to amend the Orphan Drug Act in a way that may prevent these effects of the Catalyst decision, but it is unclear if or when such legislation could be enacted.

-38-


 

In addition, we may face risks with maintaining regulatory exclusivities for our products, and our protection may be circumvented, even if maintained. For instance, orphan drug exclusivity in the U.S. may be rescinded if (i) an alternative, competing product demonstrates clinical superiority to our product with orphan exclusivity; or (ii) we are unable to assure the availability of sufficient quantities of our orphan products to meet the needs of patients. Moreover, competitors may receive approval of different drugs or biologics for indications for which our prior approved orphan products have exclusivity. Orphan drug exclusivity in Europe may be modified for several reasons, including a significant change to the orphan medicinal product designations or status criteria after-market authorization of the orphan product (e.g., product profitability exceeds the criteria for orphan drug designation), problems with the production or supply of the orphan drug, or a competitor drug, although similar, is safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior than the initial orphan drug. Thus, other companies may have received, or could receive, approval to market a product candidate that is granted orphan drug exclusivity for the same drug or similar drug and same orphan indication as any of our product candidates for which we plan to file an NDA, BLA or MAA. If that were to happen, our prior approved orphan products may face competition and any pending NDA, BLA or MAA for our product candidate for that indication may not be approved until the competing company’s period of exclusivity has expired in the U.S. or the EU, as applicable. For example, in September 2021, the FDA issued guidance concerning its position on interpreting when gene therapy products would be considered the “same” or “different” for purposes of orphan drug exclusivity. The guidance states that if two gene therapy products have or use different vectors, the FDA generally intends to consider them to be “different” drugs. Further, according to the guidance, the FDA generally intends to consider vectors from the same viral group (e.g., adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vs. adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5)) to be different, when the differences between the vectors impact factors such as tropism, immune response avoidance, or potential insertional mutagenesis. However, there is considerable uncertainty as to the interpretation of these guidelines. As illustrated by this guidance, orphan drug exclusivity as applied to gene therapy products is an evolving area subject to change and interpretation by the FDA and therefore, we cannot be certain as to how the FDA will apply those rules to ELEVIDYS or our gene therapy product candidates.

If we are unable to successfully maintain and further develop internal commercialization capabilities, sales of our products may be negatively impacted.

We have hired and trained a commercial team and put in the organizational infrastructure we believe we need to support the commercial success of our products in the U.S. Factors that may inhibit our efforts to maintain and further develop commercial capabilities include:

an inability to retain an adequate number of effective commercial personnel;
an inability to train sales personnel, who may have limited experience with our company or our products, to deliver a consistent message regarding our products and be effective in educating physicians on how to prescribe our products;
an inability to equip sales personnel with compliant and effective materials, including medical and sales literature to help them educate physicians and our healthcare providers regarding our products and their proper administration and educate payors on the safety, efficacy and effectiveness profile of our products to support favorable coverage decisions;
unforeseen costs and expenses associated with maintaining and further developing an independent sales and marketing organization; and
an inability to develop effective commercial, sales and marketing infrastructure to support new product launches.

If we are not successful in maintaining an effective commercial, sales and marketing infrastructure, we will encounter difficulty in achieving, maintaining or increasing projected sales of our products in the U.S., which would adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The patient population suffering from Duchenne, LGMDs, and CMT 1A is small and has not been established with precision. If the actual number of patients is smaller than we estimate, our revenue and ability to achieve profitability may be adversely affected.

Duchenne, LGMD, and CMT 1A are rare, fatal genetic disorders. Duchenne affects an estimated one in approximately every 3,500 to 5,000 males born worldwide, of which up to 13% are estimated to be amenable to exon 51 skipping, up to 8% are estimated to be amenable to exon 53 skipping and up to 8% are estimated to be amenable to exon 45 skipping. LGMDs as a class affect an estimated range of approximately one in every 14,500 to one in every 123,000 individuals. CMT is a group of peripheral nerve disorders affecting approximately one in every 2,500 individuals. CMT type 1A affects approximately 50,000 patients in the U.S. Our estimates of the size of these patient populations are based on limited number of published studies as well as internal analyses. Various factors may decrease the market size of our products and product candidates, including the severity of the disease, patient demographics and the response of patients’ immune systems to our products and product candidates. If the results of these studies or our analysis of them do not accurately reflect the relevant patient population, our assessment of the market may be inaccurate, making it difficult or impossible for us to meet our revenue goals, or to obtain and maintain profitability.

-39-


 

We face intense competition and rapid technological change, which may result in other companies discovering, developing or commercializing competitive products.

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are highly competitive and subject to significant and rapid technological change. We are aware of many pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that are actively engaged in research and development in areas in which our products and product candidates are aimed. Some of these competitors are developing or testing product candidates that now, or may in the future, compete directly with our products or product candidates. For example, we face competition in the field of Duchenne by third parties who are developing or who had once developed: (i) exon skipping product candidates, such as Wave (notably for exons 51 and 53), Nippon Shinyaku (notably for exon 44 and exon 53, for which it has received FDA approval for its product Viltepso (viltolarsen)), Daiichi (notably for exon 45), Dyne Therapeutics pursuing antibody-oligonucleotide conjugates for exons 44, 45, 51, and 53, Avidity Biosciences pursuing antibody-oligonucleotide conjugates for exons 44, 45 and 51, PepGen (notably for exon 51), SQY Therapeutics and BioMarin (BMN-351 for exon 51); (ii) gene therapies, such as Pfizer and Solid (in partnership with Ultragenyx), and Regenxbio; (iii) gene editing, including CRISPR/Cas 9 approaches, such as Exonics Therapeutics (acquired by Vertex Pharmaceuticals), CRISPR Therapeutics, Editas Medicine, and Precision Biosciences (in partnership with Eli Lilly); (iv) other disease modifying approaches, such as PTC Therapeutics, which has a small molecule candidate, ataluren, that targets nonsense mutations; and (v) other approaches that may be palliative in nature or potentially complementary with our products and product candidates and that are or were once being developed by Santhera, Catabasis, Fibrogen, ReveraGen, Capricor Therapeutics (in partnership with Nippon Shinyaku), BioPhytis, Mallinckrodt, Antisense Therapeutics, Italfarmco, Dystrogen and Edgewise Therapeutics. Although BioMarin announced on May 31, 2016 its intent to discontinue clinical and regulatory development of drisapersen as well as its other clinical stage candidates, BMN 044, BMN 045 and BMN 053, then-currently in Phase 2 studies for distinct forms of Duchenne, it further announced its intent to continue to explore the development of next generation oligonucleotides for the treatment of Duchenne. Indeed, BioMarin has announced it is pursuing IND enabling studies for BMN-351, an oligonucleotide therapy. In addition, while Wave announced its intention to discontinue development of suvodirsen and suspend development of WVE-N531, it has announced that it commenced clinical development for its exon 53 oligonucleotide, WVE-N531.

In addition, we are aware of many pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that are actively engaged in research and development using platform technologies that may be viewed as competing with ours beyond and including those companies mentioned immediately above, such as Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Arbutus (formerly Tekmira Pharmaceuticals Corp.), Deciphera Pharmaceuticals, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Roche Innovation Center Copenhagen (formerly Santaris Pharma A/S), Shire plc (now Takeda), Biogen, Moderna Therapeutics, Avidity, Dyne Therapeutics, Stoke Therapeutics, Fulcrum Therapeutics, Ultragenyx, Sanofi and PepGen. Additionally, several companies and institutions have entered into collaborations or other agreements for the development of product candidates, including mRNA, gene therapy and gene editing (CRIPSR and AAV, among others) and small molecule therapies that are potential competitors for therapies being developed in the muscular dystrophy, neuromuscular and rare disease space, including, but not limited to, Astellas Pharma, Biogen Inc., Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, Ionis, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Sanofi, Shire (now Takeda), Eli Lilly, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Moderna Therapeutics, Inc., Akashi, Capricor Therapeutics (in partnership with Nippon Shinyaku), Oxford University, Exonics Therapeutics (acquired by Vertex Pharmaceuticals), and Editas Medicine.

If any of our competitors are successful in obtaining regulatory approval for any of their product candidates, it may limit our ability to enter into the market, gain market share or maintain market share in the Duchenne space or other diseases targeted by our platform technologies, products and product candidate pipeline.

It is possible that our competitors will succeed in developing technologies that, in addition to limiting the market size for our products or product candidates, impact the regulatory approval and post-marketing process for our products and product candidates, are more effective than our products or product candidates or would render our technologies obsolete or noncompetitive. Our competitors may, among other things, relative to our products or product candidates:

develop safer or more effective products;
implement more effective approaches to sales and marketing;
develop less costly products;
have lower cost of goods;
receive more favorable reimbursement coverage;
obtain preferred formulary status;
obtain regulatory approval more quickly;
have access to more manufacturing capacity;

-40-


 

develop products that are more convenient and easier to administer;
form more advantageous strategic alliances; or
establish superior intellectual property positions.

Further, development and commercialization of ELEVIDYS and any expansion of its currently approved label, and development of our gene therapy product candidates, may compete with or supersede our current approved products, which may impact future revenues from sales of our current approved products. Our gene therapy product candidates are being developed for potential treatment of overlapping patient populations with our current approved products, and we have not determined if our gene therapy product candidates will be used in patients in combination with our existing approved products or in separate treatment regiments.

Our revenue could face competitive pressures for any of the above reasons. Moreover, if competing products are marketed in a territory in which we also have the authority to market our products, our sales may diminish, or our business could be otherwise materially adversely affected.

Future sales of ELEVIDYS may decrease sales growth, or reduce sales, of our PMO Products, which could negatively impact our operating results, including through potential inventory write-offs.

Substantial overlap may exist between the addressable patient population for ELEVIDYS and the patient populations eligible for treatment with our PMO Products. In the future, ELEVIDYS may be used in combination with our PMO Products or may be adopted as a separate treatment regimen. Accordingly, ELEVIDYS may compete with our PMO Products. As a result, successful commercialization of ELEVIDYS may reduce sales of our PMO Products, potentially resulting in significant accounting charges relating to write-off of inventory if such inventory becomes in excess, obsolete or unusable.

We have entered into multiple collaborations and strategic transactions, including our collaboration with Roche, and may seek or engage in future strategic collaborations, alliances, acquisitions or licensing agreements or other relationships that complement or expand our business. We may not be able to complete such transactions, and such transactions, if executed, may increase our capital requirements, dilute our stockholders, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities and subject us to other risks.

In order to achieve our long-term business objectives, we actively evaluate various strategic opportunities on an ongoing basis, including licensing or acquiring products, technologies or businesses. We may face competition from other companies in pursuing such opportunities. This competition is most intense for approved drugs and late-stage drug candidates, which have the lowest risk in terms of probability of success but would have a higher risk and more immediate effect on our financial performance. Our ability to complete transactions may also be limited by applicable antitrust and trade regulation laws and regulations in the relevant U.S. and foreign jurisdictions in which we or the operations or assets we seek to acquire carry on business.

We have entered into multiple collaborations, including with Roche, Nationwide, Duke University, Genethon, University of Florida, Genevant Sciences, Dyno Therapeutics, and Hansa Biopharma. We may not realize the anticipated benefits of such collaborations, and the anticipated benefits of any future collaborations or strategic relationships, each of which involves numerous risks, including:

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to a collaboration;
collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of our products or product candidates based on clinical trial results, changes in their strategic focus due to the acquisition of competitive products, availability of funding, or other external factors, such as a business combination that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;
collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial, stop a clinical trial, abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials, or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;
collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our products or product candidates, or otherwise undermine or devalue the efforts of our collaboration;
collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our intellectual property or proprietary information in a way that gives rise to actual or threatened litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential liability;

-41-


 

disputes may arise between us and a collaborator that cause the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our products or product candidates, or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;
collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may eliminate our rights to commercialize certain product candidates or may result in a need for additional capital;
failure to successfully develop the acquired or licensed drugs or technology or to achieve strategic objectives, including successfully developing and commercializing the drugs, drug candidates or technologies that we acquire or license;
entry into markets in which we have no or limited direct prior experience or where competitors in such markets have stronger market positions;
disruption of our ongoing business, distraction of our management and employees from other opportunities and challenges and retention of key employees;
potential failure of the due diligence processes to identify significant problems, liabilities or other shortcomings or challenges of an acquired company, or acquired or licensed product or technology, including but not limited to, problems, liabilities or other shortcomings or challenges with respect to intellectual property, product quality, safety, accounting practices, employee, customer or third-party relations and other known and unknown liabilities;
liability for activities of the acquired company or licensor before the acquisition or license, including intellectual property infringement claims, violations of laws, commercial disputes, tax liabilities, and other known and unknown liabilities;
exposure to litigation or other claims in connection with, or inheritance of claims or litigation risk as a result of an acquisition or license, including but not limited to, claims from terminated employees, customers, former equity holders or other third-parties;
difficulty in integrating the products, product candidates, technologies, business operations and personnel of an acquired asset or company; and
difficulties in the integration of the acquired company’s departments, systems, including accounting, human resource and other administrative systems, technologies, books and records, and procedures, as well as in maintaining uniform standards, controls, including internal control over financial reporting required by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related procedures and policies.

For example, we will have limited influence and control over the development and commercialization activities of Roche in the territories in which it leads development and commercialization of ELEVIDYS, and if the exclusive option is exercised, in the territories in which it may lead commercialization of certain other products or product candidates. Roche’s development and commercialization activities in the territories where it is the lead party may adversely impact our own efforts in the U.S. Failure by Roche to meet its obligations under the collaboration agreement, to apply sufficient efforts at developing and commercializing collaboration products, or to comply with applicable legal or regulatory requirements, may materially adversely affect our business and our results of operations. In addition, to the extent we rely on Roche to commercialize any products for which we obtain regulatory approval, we will receive less revenues than if we commercialized these products ourselves.

Even if we achieve the long-term benefits associated with strategic transactions, our expenses and short-term costs may increase materially and adversely affect our liquidity and short-term net income (loss). Future licenses or acquisitions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, the creation of contingent liabilities, impairment or expenses related to goodwill, and impairment or amortization expenses related to other intangible assets, which could harm our financial condition. For example, in February 2020, we issued and sold 2,522,227 shares of common stock to Roche Finance in connection with the entry into the collaboration agreement with Roche.

Risks Related to the Development of our Product Candidates

We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials, which could delay or prevent clinical trials of our product candidates.

Identifying and qualifying patients to participate in clinical trials of our product candidates is critical to our success. The timing of our clinical trials depends on the speed at which we can recruit eligible patients to participate in testing our product candidates. We have experienced delays in some of our clinical trials, and we may experience similar delays in the future. These delays could result in increased costs, delays in advancing our product development, delays in testing the effectiveness of our technology, delays in our ability to expand the labels of any of our approved products or termination of the clinical trials altogether.

-42-


 

We may not be able to identify, recruit and enroll a sufficient number of patients, or those with required or desired characteristics to achieve diversity in a study, to complete our clinical trials within the expected timeframe. Patient enrollment can be impacted by factors including, but not limited to:

design and complexity and/or commitment of participation required in the study protocol;
size of the patient population;
diagnostic capabilities within patient population;
eligibility criteria for the study in question;
clinical supply availability;
delays in participating site identification, qualification and subsequent activation to enroll;
perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study, including as a result of adverse effects observed in similar or competing therapies;
proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients;
availability of competing therapies and clinical trials;
competition of site efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;
participating site motivation;
patient referral practices of physicians;
activities of patient advocacy groups;
ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment; and
severity of the disease under investigation.

In particular, each of the conditions for which we plan to evaluate our product candidates are rare genetic diseases with limited patient pools from which to draw for clinical trials. Further, because newborn screening for these diseases is not widely adopted, and it can be difficult to diagnose these diseases in the absence of a genetic screen, we may have difficulty finding patients who are eligible to participate in our studies. The eligibility criteria of our clinical trials will further limit the pool of available study participants. Additionally, the process of finding and diagnosing patients may prove costly. The treating physicians in our clinical trials may also use their medical discretion in advising patients enrolled in our clinical trials to withdraw from our studies to try alternative therapies. In addition, a resurgence of COVID 19 infection rates may impact patient ability and willingness to travel to clinical trial sites as a result of quarantines and other restrictions, which may negatively impact enrollment in our clinical trials.

We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials if we cannot enroll the required eligible patients per protocol to participate in the clinical trials required by the FDA or the EMA or other regulatory agencies. Our ability to successfully initiate, enroll and complete a clinical trial in any foreign country is subject to numerous risks unique to conducting business in foreign countries, including:

difficulty in establishing or managing relationships with contract research organizations (“CROs”) and physicians;
different standards for the conduct of clinical trials;
our inability to locate qualified local consultants, physicians and partners;
the potential burden of complying with a variety of foreign laws, medical standards and regulatory requirements, including the regulation of pharmaceutical and biotechnology products and treatment;
ability to procure and deliver necessary clinical trial materials needed to perform the study; and
inability to implement adequate training at participating sites remotely when in person training cannot be completed.

If we have difficulty enrolling a sufficient number of patients to conduct our clinical trials as planned, we may need to delay, limit or terminate ongoing or planned clinical trials, any of which would have an adverse effect on our business.

-43-


 

Failures or delays in the commencement or completion of ongoing and planned clinical trials of our product candidates negatively impact commercialization efforts; result in increased costs; and delay, prevent or limit our ability to gain regulatory approval of product candidates and to generate revenues and continue our business.

Successful completion of clinical trials at each applicable stage of development is a prerequisite to submitting a marketing application to the regulatory agencies and, consequently, the ultimate approval and commercial marketing of any of our product candidates for the indications in which we develop them. We do not know whether any of our clinical trials will begin or be completed, and results announced, as planned or expected, if at all, as the commencement and completion of clinical trials and announcement of results is often delayed or prevented for a number of reasons, including, among others:

denial by the regulatory agencies of permission to proceed with our planned clinical trials or any other clinical trials we may initiate, or placement of a clinical trial on hold;
delays in filing or receiving approvals of additional INDs that may be required;
negative and/or unanticipated results from our ongoing non-clinical trials or clinical trials;
challenges in identifying, recruiting, enrolling and retaining patients to participate in clinical trials;
challenges with subject compliance within clinical trials;
timely and effectively contract with (under reasonable terms), manage and work with investigators, institutions, hospitals and the CROs/ vendors involved in the clinical trial;
negotiate contracts and other related documents with clinical trial parties and institutional review boards, such as informed consents, CRO agreements and site agreements, which can be subject to extensive negotiations that could cause significant delays in the clinical trial process, with terms possibly varying significantly among different trial sites and CROs and possibly subjecting the Company to various risks;
inadequate quantity or quality of supplies of a product candidate or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials, for example as a result of delays in defining and implementing the manufacturing process for materials used in pivotal trials or for the manufacture of larger quantities or other delays or issues arising in the manufacturing of sufficient supply of finished drug product;
difficulties obtaining institutional review board (“IRB”) approval, and equivalent (Ethics Committees or ECs) approval for sites outside the U.S., to conduct a clinical trial at a prospective site or sites;
ensure adherence to trial designs and protocols agreed upon and approved by regulatory authorities and applicable legal and regulatory guidelines;
delays or problems in analyzing data, or the need for additional analysis or data or the need to enroll additional patients;
the occurrence of serious adverse events or unexpected drug-related side effects experienced by patients in a clinical trial or unexpected results in ongoing non-clinical trials;
delays in validating endpoints utilized in a clinical trial;
delays in validating outcome assessments needed in a clinical trial;
our inability to have formal meetings with the regulatory agencies or to interact with them on a regular basis;
our inability to satisfy the requirements of the regulatory agencies to commence clinical trials, such as developing potency assays and lot release specifications that correlate with the activity or response of the product candidate or other CMC requirements;
the regulatory agencies disagreeing with our clinical trial design and our interpretation of data from clinical trials, or changing the requirements for approval even after the regulatory authority has reviewed and commented on the design for our clinical trials;
reports from non-clinical or clinical testing of competing therapies that raise safety or efficacy concerns; and
the recruitment and retention of employees, consultants or contractors with the required level of expertise.

Any inability to complete successfully pre-clinical and clinical development could result in additional costs to us or impair our ability to generate revenues from product sales, regulatory and commercialization milestones and royalties. In addition, manufacturing or formulation changes to our product candidates often require additional studies to demonstrate comparability of the

-44-


 

modified product candidates to earlier versions. Clinical study delays also shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates or allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do, which impairs our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and harms our business and results of operations.

Clinical development is lengthy and uncertain. Clinical trials of our novel gene therapy candidates may be delayed, including as a result of a resurgence in COVID-19, or other similar pandemic, infection rates, and certain programs may never advance in the clinic or may be more costly to conduct than we anticipate, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business.

Clinical testing is expensive and complex and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. We may not be able to initiate, may experience delays in, or may have to discontinue clinical trials for our product candidates as a result of numerous unforeseen events, including:

the FDA, other regulators, IRBs, or ethics committees may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site for any number of reasons, including concerns regarding safety and aspects of the clinical trial design;
we may experience delays in reaching, or fail to reach, agreement on favorable terms with prospective trial sites and prospective CROs, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
the outcome of our pre-clinical studies and our early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results;
we may be unable to establish clinical endpoints that applicable regulatory authorities would consider clinically meaningful;
clinical trials of any product candidates may fail to show safety or efficacy, or produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional nonclinical studies or clinical trials, or we may decide to abandon product development programs;
differences in trial design between early-stage clinical trials and later-stage clinical trials make it difficult to extrapolate the results of earlier clinical trials to later clinical trials;
pre-clinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many product candidates believed to have performed satisfactorily in pre-clinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval; and
regulators may elect to impose a clinical hold, or we or our investigators, IRBs, or ethics committees may elect to suspend or terminate clinical research or trials for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable benefit risk ratio. For example, in the past we have received clinical holds from the FDA. Although these holds have generally not materially affected our development timelines, there is no assurance that any future hold would not have a material adverse effect. A clinical hold, or any of the above factors, may be out of our control and could materially impair our development timelines, expenses and results of operations.

In addition, the impact of COVID-19 has caused disruptions and may cause future delays in some of our clinical trials. Responses to resurgence of infection rates of COVID-19 by healthcare providers and regulatory agencies could delay the commencement of clinical trials, site initiation, protocol compliance, or the completion of clinical trials, including the completion of post-marketing requirements and commitments, slow down enrollment, and make the ongoing collection of data for patients enrolled in studies more difficult or intermittent.

Results from pre-clinical and early‑stage clinical trials may not be indicative of safety or efficacy in late‑stage clinical trials, and pre-clinical and clinical trials may fail to demonstrate acceptable levels of safety, efficacy, and quality of our product candidates, which could prevent or significantly delay their regulatory approval.

To obtain the requisite regulatory approvals to market and sell any of our product candidates, we must demonstrate, through extensive pre-clinical and clinical trials, that the product candidate is safe and effective in humans. Ongoing and future pre-clinical and clinical trials of our product candidates may not show sufficient safety, efficacy or adequate quality to obtain or maintain regulatory approvals. For example, although we believe the data for SRP-9003 and SRP-5051 collected to date are positive, the additional data we collect may not be consistent with the pre-clinical and/or early clinical data or show a safe benefit that warrants further development or pursuit of a regulatory approval for these product candidates.

-45-


 

Furthermore, success in pre-clinical and early clinical trials does not ensure that the subsequent trials will be successful, nor does it predict final results of a confirmatory trial. Some of our clinical trials were conducted with small patient populations and were not blinded or placebo-controlled, making it difficult to predict whether the favorable results that we observed in such trials will be repeated in larger and more advanced clinical trials. For example, recent announcements for SRP-9003 and SRP-5051 include: in May 2021, we announced results from the 30 mg/kg cohort of Part A of Study 5051-201 for SRP-5051; and in March 2022, we announced 24-month functional data from two clinical trial participants in the high-dose cohort, and 36-month functional data from three clinical trial participants in the low-dose cohort for SRP-9003. These data are based on small patient samples, and, given the heterogeneity of Duchenne and LGMD patients and potential lot-to-lot variability, the data may not be predictive of future results. In addition, we cannot assure that the results of additional data or data from any future trial will yield results that are consistent with the data presented, that we will be able to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of these product candidates, that later trial results will support further development, or even if such later results are favorable, that we will be able to successfully complete the development of, obtain accelerated, conditional or standard regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize any of such product candidates. Similarly, we cannot provide assurances that data from our ongoing and planned studies with respect to our commercially approved products and product candidates will be positive and consistent or that the interpretation by regulators, such as the FDA or EMA, of the data we collect for our products or product candidates will be consistent with our interpretations.

Our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent regulatory approval of product candidates, limit the commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences following any potential marketing approval.

Our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects. In addition to side effects caused by our product candidates, the administration process or related procedures also can cause adverse side effects. If any such adverse events occur in our trials, we may decide, or the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities could order us, to halt, delay or amend pre-clinical development or clinical development of our product candidates or we may be unable to receive regulatory approval of our product candidates for any or all targeted indications. For example, FDA placed Study 5051-201 on clinical hold in June 2022 following a serious adverse event of hypomagnesemia, which was lifted in August 2022. Even if we are able to demonstrate that all future serious adverse events are not product-related, such occurrences could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial. Moreover, if we elect, or are required, to delay, suspend or terminate any clinical trial of any of our product candidates, the commercial prospects of such product candidates may be harmed and our ability to generate product revenues from any of these product candidates may be delayed or eliminated. Any of these occurrences may harm our ability to develop other product candidates and may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

If there are significant delays in obtaining or we are unable to obtain or maintain required regulatory approvals, we will not be able to commercialize our product candidates in a timely manner or at all, which could impair our ability to generate sufficient revenue and have a successful business.

The research, testing, manufacturing, labeling, approval, commercialization, marketing, selling and distribution of drug products are subject to extensive regulation by applicable local, regional and national regulatory authorities and regulations may differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In the U.S., approvals and oversight from federal (e.g., FDA), state and other regulatory authorities are required for these activities. Sale and marketing of our product candidates in the U.S. or other countries is not permitted until we obtain the required approvals from the applicable regulatory authorities. Of the large number of drugs in development in the biopharmaceutical industry, only a small percentage result in the submission of a marketing application to the FDA or an MAA to the EMA (or NCA of an EU member state) and even fewer are approved for commercialization.

Our ability to obtain the government or regulatory approvals required to commercialize any of our product candidates in any jurisdiction, including in the U.S. or the EU, cannot be assured, may be significantly delayed or may never be achieved for various reasons including the following:

Our non-clinical, clinical, chemistry, manufacturing and controls and other data and analyses from past, current and future studies for any of our product candidates may not be sufficient to meet regulatory requirements for marketing application approvals. The regulatory authorities could disagree with our interpretations and conclusions regarding data we provide in connection with NDA, BLA or MAA submissions for one or more of our product candidates, and may delay, reject or refuse to accept for review, or approve any submission we make or identify additional requirements for product approval to be submitted upon completion, if ever. In addition, in the U.S., an FDA advisory committee could determine that our data are insufficient to provide a positive recommendation for approval of any NDA or BLA we submit to the FDA. Even if we meet FDA requirements and an advisory committee votes to recommend approval of an NDA or BLA submission, the FDA could still disagree with the advisory committee’s recommendation and deny approval of a product candidate based on their review.

-46-


 

The regulatory approval process for product candidates targeting orphan diseases, such as Duchenne, that use new technologies and processes, such as antisense oligonucleotide therapies, gene therapy and other alternative approaches or endpoints for the determination of efficacy is uncertain due to, among other factors, evolving interpretations of a new therapeutic class, the broad discretion of regulatory authorities, lack of precedent, small safety databases, varying levels of applicable expertise of regulators or their advisory committees, scientific developments, changes in the competitor landscape, shifting political priorities and changes in applicable laws, rules or regulations and interpretations of the same. As a result of uncertainty in the approval process for products intended to treat serious rare diseases, we may not be able to anticipate, prepare for or satisfy requests or requirements from regulatory authorities, including completing and submitting planned NDAs, BLAs and MAAs for our product candidates, in a timely manner, or at all. Examples of such requests or requirements could include, but are not limited to, conducting additional or redesigned trials and procedures (e.g., additional safety data, patient muscle biopsies, dystrophin analyses and the use of assays), repeating or completing additional analysis of our data, or providing additional supportive data. In addition, in the U.S., an FDA advisory committee or regulators may disagree with our data analysis, interpretations and conclusions at any point in the approval process, which could negatively impact the approval of our NDA or BLA or result in a decision by the Company not to proceed with an NDA or BLA submission for a product candidate based on feedback from regulators.
We may not have the resources required to meet regulatory requirements and successfully navigate what is generally a lengthy, expensive and extensive approval process for commercialization of drug product candidates.

Any failure on our part to respond to these requirements in a timely and satisfactory manner could significantly delay or negatively impact confirmatory study timelines and/or the development plans we have for PMO, PPMO, gene therapy-based product candidates or other product candidates. Responding to requests from regulators and meeting requirements for clinical trials, submissions and approvals may require substantial personnel, financial or other resources, which, as a small biopharmaceutical company, we may not be able to obtain in a timely manner or at all. In addition, our ability to respond to requests from regulatory authorities that involve our agents, third party vendors and associates may be complicated by our own limitations and those of the parties we work with. It may be difficult or impossible for us to conform to regulatory guidance or successfully execute our product development plans in response to regulatory guidance, including guidance related to clinical trial design with respect to any NDA, BLA or MAA submissions.

Even if our product candidates demonstrate safety and efficacy in clinical studies, the regulatory agencies may not complete their review processes in a timely manner, or we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval. Additional delays may result if an FDA Advisory Committee or other regulatory advisory group or authority recommends non-approval or restrictions on approval.

In addition, we may experience delays or rejections based upon additional government regulation from future legislation or administrative action, or changes in regulatory agency policy during the period of product development, clinical studies and the review process. Regulatory agencies also may approve a treatment candidate for fewer or more limited indications than requested or may grant approval subject to the performance of post-marketing studies. Furthermore, regulatory agencies may not approve the labeling claims that are necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of our treatment candidates. Finally, some of our product candidates may require diagnostic tests to ensure we appropriately select patients suitable for treatment. If we are unable to successfully develop diagnostic tests for these product candidates, experience significant delays in doing so, or are unable to obtain required regulatory clearances or approvals for any diagnostic tests, the commercialization of our product candidates may be delayed or prevented. Even if we receive the required regulatory clearance or approvals for certain diagnostic tests, the commercial success of any of our product candidates that require such tests will be dependent upon the continued availability of such tests.

We are investing significant resources in the development of novel gene therapy product candidates. Only a few gene therapy products have been approved in the U.S. and EU. If we are unable to show the safety and efficacy of these product candidates, experience delays in doing so or are unable to successfully commercialize at least one of these drugs, our business would be materially harmed.

We are investing significant resources in the development of our gene therapy product candidates. We believe that a significant portion of the long-term value attributed to our company by investors is based on the commercial potential of these product candidates. There can be no assurance that any development problems we experience in the future related to our gene therapy programs will not cause significant delays or unanticipated costs, or that such development problems can be solved. Development problems and delays in one program may delay the development of other programs. Early results from ongoing clinical trials may differ materially from final results from such clinical trials. The results from pre-clinical and early clinical studies do not always accurately predict results in later, large-scale clinical trials. We may also experience delays in developing a sustainable, reproducible and commercial-scale manufacturing process or transferring that process to commercial partners, which may prevent us from completing our clinical trials or commercializing our products on a timely or profitable basis, if at all.

-47-


 

In addition, the clinical trial requirements of the FDA, the EMA, and other regulatory agencies and the criteria these regulators use to determine the safety and efficacy of a product candidate vary substantially according to the type, complexity, novelty and intended use and market of the potential products. The regulatory approval process for novel product candidates such as ours can be more expensive and take longer than for other, better known or more extensively studied pharmaceutical or other product candidates. Currently, only a few gene therapy products have been approved in the Western world. Given the few precedents of approved gene therapy products, it is difficult to determine how long it will take or how much it will cost to obtain regulatory approvals for our gene therapy product candidates in the U.S., the EU or other jurisdictions. Approvals by the EMA and the EC may not be indicative of what the FDA may require for approval.

Regulatory requirements governing gene therapy products have evolved and may continue to change in the future. Within the FDA, the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (“CBER”) regulates gene therapy products. Within the CBER, the review of gene therapy and related products is consolidated in the Office of Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies, and the FDA has established the Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee to advise CBER on its reviews. The CBER works closely with the National Institutes of Health (the “NIH”). The FDA and the NIH have published guidance documents with respect to the development and submission of gene therapy protocols. For example, on January 28, 2020, the FDA issued final guidance documents that updated draft guidance documents that were originally released in July 2018 to reflect recent advances in the field, and to set forth the framework for the development, review and approval of gene therapies. These final guidance documents pertain to the development of gene therapies for the treatment of specific disease categories, including rare diseases, and to manufacturing and long-term follow up issues relevant to gene therapy, among other topics. The FDA also issued a new guidance document in September 2021 describing the FDA’s approach for determining whether two gene therapy products were the same or different for the purpose of assessing orphan drug exclusivity, as well as a draft guidance document in March 2022 on human gene therapy product incorporating human genome editing. FDA also issued a draft guidance in December 2023 that provides recommendations for developing a potency assurance strategy for gene therapy products. In addition, the FDA can put an IND on hold if the information in an IND is not sufficient to assess the risks in pediatric patients.

These regulatory review agencies, committees and advisory groups and the new requirements and guidelines they promulgate may lengthen the regulatory review process, require us to perform additional or larger studies, increase our development costs, lead to changes in regulatory positions and interpretations, delay or prevent approval and commercialization of these treatment candidates or lead to significant post-approval studies, limitations or restrictions. As we advance our product candidates, we will be required to consult with these regulatory and advisory groups and comply with applicable requirements and guidelines, failure of which may lead to delayed or discontinued development of our product candidates.

If the anticipated or actual timing of marketing approvals for our gene therapy product candidates, or the market acceptance of these product candidates, if approved, including treatment reimbursement levels agreed to by third-party payors, do not meet the expectations of investors or public market analysts, the market price of our common stock would likely decline.

Because we are developing product candidates for the treatment of certain diseases in which there is little clinical experience and we are using new endpoints or methodologies, there is increased risk that the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities may not consider the endpoints of our clinical trials to provide clinically meaningful results and that these results may be difficult to analyze. Accordingly, the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities could interpret these data in different ways from us or our partners, which could delay, limit or prevent full or accelerated regulatory approval.

During the FDA review process, we will need to identify success criteria and endpoints such that the FDA will be able to determine the clinical efficacy and safety profile of our product candidates. As we are developing novel treatments for diseases in which there is little clinical experience with new endpoints and methodologies, such as gene therapy, there is heightened risk that the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory bodies may not consider the clinical trial endpoints to provide clinically meaningful results (reflecting a tangible benefit to patients). In addition, the resulting clinical data and results may be difficult to analyze. Even if the FDA does find our success criteria to be sufficiently validated and clinically meaningful, we may not achieve the pre-specified endpoints to a degree of statistical significance. Achieving appropriate statistical power may be challenging for some of the ultra-rare genetically defined diseases we are targeting in our programs, especially if the acceptance of descriptive data is not yet established. In addition, different methodologies, assumptions and applications we utilize to assess particular safety or efficacy parameters may yield different statistical results. Even if we believe the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates are promising, these data may not be sufficient to support approval by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities. Pre-clinical and clinical data can be interpreted in different ways. Accordingly, the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities could interpret these data in different ways from us or our partners, which could delay, limit or prevent full or accelerated regulatory approval.

If our study data do not consistently or sufficiently demonstrate the safety or efficacy of any of our product candidates, the regulatory approvals for such product candidates could be significantly delayed as we work to meet approval requirements, or, if we are not able to meet these requirements, such approvals could be withheld or withdrawn.

-48-


 

Fast track product, breakthrough therapy, priority review, or Regenerative Medicine Advanced Therapy (“RMAT”) designation by the FDA, or access to the Priority Medicine scheme (“PRIME”) by the EMA, for our product candidates, if granted, may not lead to faster development or regulatory review or approval process, and does not increase the likelihood that our product candidates will receive marketing approval.

We may seek fast track, breakthrough therapy designation, RMAT designation, PRIME scheme access or priority review designation for our product candidates if supported by the results of clinical trials. A fast track product designation is designed to facilitate the clinical development and expedite the review of drugs intended to treat a serious or life-threatening condition which demonstrate the potential to address an unmet medical need. A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, where preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. A RMAT designation is designed to accelerate approval for regenerative advanced therapies such as our gene therapy product candidates. Priority review designation is intended to speed the FDA marketing application review timeframe for drugs that treat a serious condition and, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in safety or effectiveness. PRIME is a scheme provided by the EMA to enhance support for the development of medicines that target an unmet medical need.

For drugs and biologics that have been designated as fast track products or breakthrough therapies, or granted access to the PRIME scheme, interaction and communication between the regulatory agency and the sponsor of the trial can help to identify the most efficient path for clinical development. Sponsors of drugs with fast track products or breakthrough therapies may also be able to submit marketing applications on a rolling basis, meaning that the FDA may review portions of a marketing application before the sponsor submits the complete application to the FDA, if the sponsor pays the user fee upon submission of the first portion of the marketing application. For products that receive a priority review designation, the FDA's marketing application review goal is shortened to six months, as opposed to ten months under standard review. This review goal is based on the date the FDA accepts the marketing application for review. This application validation period typically adds approximately two months to the timeline for review and decision from the date of submission. RMAT designations will accelerate approval and will include all the benefits of fast track and breakthrough therapy designations, including early interactions with the FDA, but the exact mechanisms have not yet been announced by FDA.

Designation as a fast track product, breakthrough therapy, RMAT, PRIME, or priority review product is within the discretion of the regulatory agency. Accordingly, even if we believe one of our product candidates meets the criteria for designation as a fast track product, breakthrough therapy, RMAT, PRIME, or priority review product, the agency may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. In any event, the receipt of such a designation for a product candidate may not result in a faster development process, review or approval compared to drugs considered for approval under conventional regulatory procedures and does not assure ultimate marketing approval by the agency. In addition, regarding fast track products and breakthrough therapies, the FDA may later decide that the products no longer meet the conditions for qualification as either a fast track product, RMAT, or a breakthrough therapy or, for priority review products, decide that period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.

We may not be able to advance all of our programs, and we may use our financial and human resources to pursue particular programs and fail to capitalize on programs that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Our pipeline includes more than 40 programs in various stages of development for a broad range of diseases and disorders. We plan to expand our pipeline through internal research and development and through strategic transactions. Because we have limited resources, we may not be able to advance all of our programs. We may also forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with certain programs or for indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs for product candidates may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through strategic collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate, or we may allocate internal resources to a product candidate in a therapeutic area in which it would have been more advantageous to enter into a partnering arrangement.

-49-


 

Risks Related to Third Parties

If we are unable to maintain our agreements with third parties to distribute our products to patients, our results of operations and business could be adversely affected.

We rely on third parties to commercially distribute our products to patients in the U.S. We have contracted with a third-party logistics company to warehouse our products and with distributors and specialty pharmacies to sell and distribute our products to patients. A specialty pharmacy is a pharmacy that specializes in the dispensing of medications for complex or chronic conditions that require a high level of patient education and ongoing management.

This distribution network requires significant coordination with our sales and marketing and finance organizations. In addition, failure to coordinate financial systems could negatively impact our ability to accurately report product revenue from our products. If we are unable to effectively manage the distribution process, the sales of our products, as well as any future products we may commercialize, could be delayed or severely compromised and our results of operations may be harmed.

In addition, the use of third parties involves certain risks, including, but not limited to, risks that these organizations will:

not provide us with accurate or timely information regarding their inventories, the number of patients who are using our products or serious adverse events and/or product complaints regarding our products;
not effectively sell or support our products;
reduce or discontinue their efforts to sell or support our products;
not devote the resources necessary to sell our products in the volumes and within the time frame we expect;
be unable to satisfy financial obligations to us or others; or
cease operations.

Any such events may result in decreased product sales, lower product revenue, loss of revenue, and/or reputational damage, which would harm our results of operations and business.

With respect to the pre-commercial distribution of our products to patients outside of the U.S., we have contracted with third party distributors and service providers to distribute our products in certain countries through our EAP. We will need to continue building out our network for commercial distribution in jurisdictions in which our products are approved, which will also require third party contracts. The use of distributors and service providers involves certain risks, including, but not limited to, risks that these organizations will not comply with applicable laws and regulations, or not provide us with accurate or timely information regarding serious adverse events and/or product complaints regarding our products. Any such events may result in regulatory actions that may include suspension or termination of the distribution and sale of our products in a certain country, loss of revenue, and/or reputational damage, which could harm our results of operations and business.

We rely on third parties to conduct some aspects of our early stage research and pre-clinical and clinical development. The inadequate performance by or loss of any of these third parties could affect the development and commercialization of our product candidate development.

We have relied upon, and plan to continue to rely upon, third parties to conduct some aspects of our early stage research and pre-clinical and clinical development with respect to certain of our product candidates, including our follow-on exon-skipping product candidates, PPMO, gene therapy and gene editing product candidates. Our third-party collaborators may not commit sufficient resources or adequately develop our programs for these candidates. If our third-party collaborators fail to commit sufficient resources to any of our product candidates or to carry out their contractual duties or obligations, our programs related to any particular product candidate could be delayed, terminated, or unsuccessful. Furthermore, if we fail to make required payments to these third-party collaborators, including up-front, milestone, reimbursement or royalty payments, or to observe other obligations in our agreements with them, these third parties may not be required to perform their obligations under our respective agreements with them and may have the right to terminate such agreements. In addition, if our strategic partners experience regulatory delays for the development of their clinical product candidates, including clinical holds, our opportunities to commercialize products may be delayed.

We also have relied upon and plan to continue to rely upon third-party CROs to monitor and manage data completeness for our ongoing pre-clinical and clinical programs. We rely on these parties for execution of our pre-clinical and clinical trials, and we control only certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol and legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on collaborators and CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities.

-50-


 

The individuals at our third-party collaborators and CROs who conduct work on our behalf, including their sub-contractors, are not always our employees, and although we participate in the planning of our early stage research and pre-clinical and clinical programs, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources or exercise appropriate oversight of these programs, except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such third parties. If our collaborators and CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our pre-clinical and clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our product candidates. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.

Our reliance on third parties requires us to share our proprietary information, which increases the possibility that a competitor will discover them or that our proprietary information will be misappropriated or inadvertently disclosed.

Our reliance on third-party collaborators requires us to disclose our proprietary information to these parties, which could increase the risk that a competitor will discover this information or that this information will be misappropriated or disclosed without our intent to do so. If any of these events were to occur, then our ability to obtain patent protection or other intellectual property rights could be irrevocably jeopardized, and costly, distracting litigation could ensue. Furthermore, if these third parties cease to continue operations and we are not able to quickly find a replacement provider or we lose information or items associated with our products or product candidates, our development programs may be delayed. Although we carefully manage our relationships with our third-party collaborators and CROs, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

Risks Related to Manufacturing

We currently rely on third parties to manufacture our products and to produce our product candidates; our dependence on these parties, including failure on our part to accurately anticipate product demand and timely secure manufacturing capacity to meet commercial, EAP, clinical and pre-clinical product demand may impair the availability of product for commercial supply or to successfully support various programs, including research and development and the potential commercialization of additional product candidates in our pipeline.

We rely on, and expect to continue relying on for the foreseeable future, a limited number of third parties to manufacture and supply materials (including raw materials and subunits), API and drug product and to provide labeling and packaging of vials and storage of our products and product candidates. The limited number of third parties with facilities and capabilities suited for the manufacturing process of our products and product candidates creates a risk that we may not be able to obtain materials and APIs in the quantity and purity that we require. As of the date of this Annual Report, we have dual sourcing for the APIs and drug product for all three of our PMO commercial products and one source for ELEVIDYS drug substance and drug product manufacturing with an additional source currently under qualification.

In addition, the process for adding new manufacturing capacity is lengthy and often causes delays in development efforts. Any interruption of the development or operation of those facilities due to, among other reasons, events such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, order delays for equipment or materials, equipment malfunctions, quality control and quality assurance issues, regulatory delays and possible negative effects of such delays on supply chains and expected timelines for product availability, production yield issues, shortages of qualified personnel, discontinuation of a facility or business or failure or damage to a facility by natural disasters, such as earthquakes or fires, could result in the cancellation of shipments, loss of product in the manufacturing process or a shortfall in supply of our products, product candidates or materials. Any delay or interruption in the supply of finished products could hinder our ability to distribute our products to meet commercial demand or execute our commercialization plans on the timing that we expect, which could result in the loss of potential revenues, adversely affect our ability to gain market acceptance, or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.

If these third parties cease providing quality manufacturing and related services to us, and we are not able to engage appropriate replacements in a timely manner, our ability to manufacture our products or product candidates in sufficient quality and quantity required for our planned commercial, pre-clinical and clinical or EAPs, our various product research, development and commercialization efforts would be adversely affected.

Furthermore, any problems in our manufacturing process or the facilities with which we contract make us a less attractive collaborator for potential partners, including larger pharmaceutical companies and academic research institutions, which could limit our access to additional attractive development programs.

-51-


 

We, through our third-party manufacturers, seek to produce or produce supply of our products and product candidates. In light of the limited number of third parties with the expertise to produce our products and product candidates, the lead time needed to manufacture them, and the availability of underlying materials, we may not be able to, in a timely manner or at all, establish or maintain sufficient commercial and other manufacturing arrangements on the commercially reasonable terms necessary to provide adequate supply of our products and product candidates. Furthermore, we may not be able to obtain the significant financial capital that may be required in connection with such arrangements. Even after successfully engaging third parties to execute the manufacturing process for our products and product candidates, such parties may not comply with the terms and timelines they have agreed to for various reasons, some of which may be out of their or our control, which impacts our ability to execute our business plans on expected or required timelines in connection with the commercialization of our products and the continued development of our product candidates. When we enter into long-term manufacturing agreements that contain exclusivity provisions and /or substantial termination penalties, we constrain our operational flexibility.

We also rely on a third party to design, manufacture, obtain and maintain regulatory approval for companion diagnostic tests for ELEVIDYS. Any delay or failure by us or our collaborators to develop or obtain regulatory approval of the companion diagnostic tests could harm our business, possibly materially.

The operations at one of our partner sites could also be disturbed by man-made or natural disasters, public health pandemics or epidemics or other business interrupts such as potential supply chain disruptions caused by the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine. In addition, the need to prioritize rated orders issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency pursuant to the U.S. Defense Production Act could impact the manufacturing, supply chain and distribution of our products and product candidates.

Products intended for use in gene therapies are novel, complex and difficult to manufacture. We could experience production problems or inaccurately forecast demand, which could result in delays in commercialization or development of other gene therapy programs, limit the supply of our product candidates or future approved products or otherwise harm our business.

We currently have development, manufacturing and testing agreements with third parties to manufacture supplies of ELEVIDYS and our gene therapy product candidates. Several factors could cause production interruptions, including talent acquisition/retention, equipment malfunctions, facility contamination, raw material shortages or contamination, natural disasters, disruption in utility services, human error or disruptions in the operations of suppliers.

The physical and chemical properties of biologics such as ours generally cannot be fully characterized. As a result, assays of the finished product may not be sufficient to ensure that the product will perform in the intended manner. Accordingly, we employ multiple steps to control our manufacturing process to assure that the process works and the product candidate is made strictly and consistently in compliance with the process. Problems with the manufacturing process, even minor deviations from the normal process, could result in delay in product release, product defects or manufacturing failures that result in lot failures, product recalls, product liability claims or insufficient inventory. We may encounter problems achieving adequate quantities and quality of clinical and/or commercial-grade materials that meet FDA, EMA or other applicable foreign standards or specifications with consistent and acceptable production yields and costs. Lot failures or product recalls could cause us to delay clinical trials or product launches, or may result in an inability to fulfill demand for commercial supply of ELEVIDYS, or other future gene therapy products, which could be costly to us and otherwise harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, the FDA, the EMA and other foreign regulatory authorities may require us to submit samples of any approved product together with the protocols showing the results of applicable tests at any time. Under some circumstances, the FDA, the EMA or other foreign regulatory authorities may require that we not distribute a lot until the competent authority authorizes its release.

As our product candidates advance to later stage clinical trials, it is customary that various CMC aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing, formulation and other processes, and route of administration, may be altered to optimize the candidates and processes for scale-up necessary for later stage clinical trials and potential approval and commercialization. These changes may not produce the intended optimization, including production of drug substance and drug product of a quality and in a quantity sufficient for Phase 3 clinical stage development or for commercialization, which may cause delays in the initiation or completion of clinical trials and greater costs. We may also need to conduct additional studies to demonstrate comparability between newly manufactured drug substance and/or drug product for commercialization relative to previously manufactured drug substance and/or drug product for clinical trials. Demonstrating comparability may require us to incur additional costs or delay initiation or completion of clinical trials and, if unsuccessful, could require us to complete additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials.

We also may encounter problems hiring and retaining the experienced scientific, quality control and manufacturing personnel needed to operate our manufacturing process which could result in delays in our production or difficulties in maintaining compliance with applicable regulatory requirements.

-52-


 

In addition, if our third-party manufacturers are unable to satisfy requirements related to the manufacturing ELEVIDYS, our ability to meet commercial demand may be adversely impacted, which could result in the loss of potential revenues, adversely affect our ability to gain market acceptance of ELEVIDYS, or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects. ELEVIDYS is our first gene therapy product. We may not be able to accurately estimate commercial demand for this new type of product. If commercial demand for ELEVIDYS is greater than we estimate, we and our manufacturers may be unable to fulfill all orders for ELEVIDYS in a timely manner, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.

Currently the capacity to produce our viral vectors or gene therapy product candidates at commercial levels is limited and the availability of sufficient GMP compliance capacity may result in delays in our development plans or increased capital expenditures, and the development and sales of any gene therapy products, if approved, may be materially harmed.

The third parties we use in the manufacturing process for our products and product candidates may fail to comply with cGMP regulations.

Our contract manufacturers are required to produce our materials, APIs and drug products under cGMP. We and our contract manufacturers are subject to periodic inspections by the FDA, EMA and corresponding state and foreign authorities to ensure strict compliance with cGMP and other applicable government regulations. In addition, before we can begin to commercially manufacture our product candidates in third-party or our own facilities, we must obtain regulatory approval from the FDA, which includes a review of the manufacturing process and facility. A manufacturing authorization also must be obtained from the appropriate EU regulatory authorities and may be required by other foreign regulatory authorities. The timeframe required to obtain such approval or authorization is uncertain. In order to obtain approval, we need to demonstrate that all of our processes, methods and equipment are compliant with cGMP, and perform extensive audits of vendors, contract laboratories and suppliers. In complying with cGMP, we are obligated to expend time, money and effort in production, record keeping and quality control to seek to assure that the product meets applicable specifications and other requirements.

We do not have direct operational control over a third-party manufacturer’s compliance with regulations and requirements. In addition, changes in cGMP could negatively impact the ability of our contract manufacturers to complete the manufacturing process of our products and product candidates in a compliant manner on the schedule we require for commercial and clinical trial use, respectively. Failure to achieve and maintain compliance with cGMP and other applicable government regulations, including failure to detect or control anticipated or unanticipated manufacturing errors, results in product recalls, clinical holds, delayed or withheld approvals, patient injury or death.

Failure by our contract manufacturers to adhere to applicable cGMP and other applicable government regulations, or our contract manufacturers experiencing manufacturing problems, may result in significant negative consequences, including product seizures or recalls, postponement or cancellation of clinical trials, loss or delay of product approval, fines and sanctions, loss of revenue, termination of the development of a product candidate, reputational damage, shipment delays, inventory shortages, inventory write-offs and other product-related charges and increased manufacturing costs. If we experience any of these consequences, the success of our commercialization of our products and/or our development efforts for our product candidates could be significantly delayed, fail or otherwise be negatively impacted.

We may not be able to successfully optimize manufacturing of our product candidates in sufficient quality and quantity or within targeted timelines, or be able to secure ownership of intellectual property rights developed in this process, which could negatively impact the commercial success of our products and/or the development of our product candidates.

Our focus remains on optimizing manufacturing for our follow-on exon skipping product candidates and other programs, including PPMO and gene therapy. We may not be able to successfully increase manufacturing capacity for the production of materials, APIs and drug products, whether in collaboration with third party manufacturers or on our own, in a manner that is safe, compliant with cGMP conditions or other applicable legal or regulatory requirements, in a cost-effective manner, in a time frame required to meet our timeline for commercialization, clinical trials and other business plans, or at all.

Challenges complying with cGMP requirements and other quality issues arise during efforts to increase manufacturing capacity and scale up production. We experience such issues in connection with manufacturing, packaging and storage of our products and product candidates, and during shipping and storage of the APIs or finished drug product. In addition, in order to release our products for commercial use and demonstrate stability of product candidates for use in clinical trials (and any subsequent drug products for commercial use), our manufacturing processes and analytical methods must be validated in accordance with regulatory guidelines. Failure to successfully validate, or maintain validation of, our manufacturing processes and analytical methods or demonstrate adequate purity, stability or comparability of our products or product candidates in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all, may undermine our commercial efforts. Failure to successfully validate our manufacturing processes and analytical methods or to demonstrate adequate purity, stability or comparability, will negatively impact the commercial availability of our products and the continued development and/or regulatory approval of our product candidates, which could significantly harm our business.

-53-


 

During our work with our third-party manufacturers to increase and optimize manufacturing capacity, they may make proprietary improvements in the manufacturing processes for our products or product candidates. We may not own or be able to secure ownership of such improvements or may have to share the intellectual property rights to those improvements. Additionally, we may need additional processes, technologies and validation studies, which could be costly and which we may not be able to develop or acquire from third parties. Failure to secure the intellectual property rights required for the manufacturing process needed for large-scale clinical trials or the continued development of our product candidates could cause significant delays in our business plans or otherwise negatively impact the continued development of our product candidates.

Risks Related to our Intellectual Property

Our success, competitive position and future revenue depend in part on our ability and the abilities of our licensors and other collaborators to obtain, maintain and defend the patent protection for our products, product candidates, and platform technologies, to preserve our trade secrets, and to prevent third parties from infringing on our proprietary rights.

We currently directly hold various issued patents and patent applications, or have exclusive license or option rights to issued patents and patent applications, in each case in the U.S. as well as other countries that protect our products, product candidates and platform technologies. We anticipate filing additional patent applications both in the U.S. and in other countries. Our success will depend, in significant part, on our ability to obtain, maintain and defend our U.S. and foreign patents covering our products, product candidates and platform technologies as well as preserving our trade secrets for these assets. The patent process is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, and we can provide no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining, maintaining, or defending our patents. Even when our patent claims are allowed, the claims may not issue, or in the event of issuance, may not be sufficient to protect our products, product candidates or platform technologies or may be challenged in post-grant proceedings by third parties.

The patent positions of pharmaceutical, biotechnology and other life sciences companies can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions for which important legal principles remain unresolved. This uncertainty is heightened for our PMO-based products and product candidates and gene therapy-based product candidates for which there has not been a significant number of patent litigations involving such technologies. No consistent policy regarding the breadth of claims allowed in biotechnology patents has emerged to date in the U.S. and tests used for determining the patentability of patent claims in all technologies are in flux. The USPTO and patent offices in other jurisdictions have often required that patent applications directed to pharmaceutical and/or biotechnology-related inventions be limited or narrowed substantially to cover only the specific innovations exemplified in the patent application, thereby limiting the scope of protection against competitive challenges. Accordingly, even if we or our licensors are able to obtain patents, the patents might be substantially narrower than anticipated. Thus, there is no assurance as to the degree and range of protections any of our patents, if issued, may afford us or whether patents will be issued. Patents which may be issued to us may be subjected to further governmental review that may ultimately result in the reduction of their scope of protection, and pending patent applications may have their requested breadth of protection significantly limited before being issued, if issued at all. The pharmaceutical, biotechnology and other life sciences patent situation outside the U.S. can be even more uncertain.

As a matter of public policy, there might be significant pressure on governmental bodies to limit the scope of patent protection or impose compulsory licenses for disease treatments that prove successful, particularly as a tactic to impose a price control. Additionally, competitors may leverage such pressure to enhance their ability to exploit these laws to create, develop and market competing products.

We may be able to assert that certain activities engaged in by our competitors infringe on our current or future patent rights. To the extent that we enforce our patents, an alleged infringer may deny infringement and/or counter-claim that our patents are not valid or enforceable, and if successful, could negatively impact our patent estate. We may not be able to successfully defend patents necessary to prevent competitors from developing, manufacturing, or commercializing competing product candidates or products. To the extent we assert infringement of a patent that covers a competing product candidate or product as well as our own product candidate(s) or product(s), or such a patent is otherwise challenged without our initiation, the patent protection for our own product candidate(s) or product(s) could be materially adversely affected should an infringing competitor be successful in challenging the validity, enforceability, or scope of our patent(s). Our patent rights might be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or otherwise not provide any competitive advantage. Defending our patent positions may require significant financial resources and could negatively impact other Company objectives. Even if we successfully enforce our patent rights against a competitor, we may not be able to recover adequate damages or obtain other desired relief.

Under the Hatch-Waxman Act, one or more motivated third parties may file an ANDA, seeking approval of a generic copy of an innovator product approved under the NDA pathway such as our PMO Products, or an NDA under Section 505(b)(2), for a new or improved version of the original innovator products. In certain circumstances, motivated third parties may file such an ANDA or NDA under Section 505(b)(2) as early as the so-called “NCE-1” date that is one year before the expiry of the five-year period of NCE exclusivity or more generally four years after NDA approval. The third parties are allowed to rely on the safety and efficacy data of

-54-


 

the innovator’s product, may not need to conduct clinical trials and can market a competing version of a product after the expiration or loss of patent exclusivity or the expiration or loss of regulatory exclusivity and often charge significantly lower prices. Upon the expiration or loss of patent protection or the expiration or loss of regulatory exclusivity for a product, the major portion of revenues for that product may be dramatically reduced in a very short period of time. If we are not successful in defending our patents and regulatory exclusivities, we will not derive the expected benefit from them. As such, a third party could be positioned to market an ANDA or Section 505(b)(2) product that competes with one of our products prior to the expiry of our patents if the third party successfully challenges the validity, enforceability, or scope of our patents protecting the product.

The patent landscape is continually evolving, and we may be able to assert that certain activities engaged in by third parties infringe our current or future patent rights. There has been, and we believe that there will continue to be, significant litigation in the biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical industries regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. As such, the patents and patent applications that we own, license, have optioned, and rely on for exclusivity for our product candidates may be challenged.

Uncertainty over intellectual property in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry has been the source of litigation and other disputes, which is inherently costly and unpredictable.

Litigation, interferences, oppositions, inter partes reviews, administrative challenges or other similar types of proceedings are, have been and may in the future be necessary in some instances to determine the validity and scope of certain of our proprietary rights, and in other instances to determine the validity, enforceability, scope or non-infringement of certain patent rights claimed by third parties to be pertinent to the manufacture, use or sale of our product candidates or products. We may also face challenges to our patent and regulatory exclusivities covering our products by third parties, including manufacturers of generics and/or biosimilars who may choose to launch or attempt to launch their products before the expiration of our patents or regulatory exclusivity. Litigation, interferences, oppositions, inter partes reviews, administrative challenges or other similar types of proceedings are unpredictable and may be protracted, expensive and distracting to management. The outcomes of such proceedings could adversely affect the validity, enforceability, and scope of our patents or other proprietary rights, hinder our ability to manufacture and market our products, require us to seek a license for the infringed products or technology or result in the assessment of significant monetary damages against us that may exceed amounts, if any, accrued in our financial statements. An adverse determination in a judicial or administrative proceeding or a failure to obtain necessary licenses could prevent us from developing, manufacturing or selling our products. Furthermore, payments under any licenses that we are able to obtain would reduce our profits derived from our products. Any of these circumstances could result in financial, business or reputational harm to us or could cause a decline or volatility in our stock price.

On September 16, 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (the “Leahy-Smith Act”), was signed into law. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law, including provisions that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted, and that may also affect patent litigation. The USPTO has issued regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act. In view of the long timelines for interpreting legal provisions in the court system and the evolving nature of our laws, it is not clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. For instance, a third party may petition the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“PTAB”) seeking to challenge some or all of the claims in any of our patents through an inter partes review or other post-grant proceedings. Should the PTAB or the USPTO Director institute an inter partes review or other proceedings and the PTAB decide that some or all of the claims in the challenged patent are unpatentable, unenforceable, or invalid, such a decision, if upheld on appeal, could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Our business prospects will be impaired if third parties successfully assert that our products, product candidates, or platform technologies infringe proprietary rights of such third parties.

Similar to us, competitors continually seek intellectual property protection for their technology. Several of our development programs, particularly gene therapy programs, focus on therapeutic areas that have been the subject of extensive research and development by third parties for many years and have been protected with third party patent rights. Due to the amount of intellectual property in our various fields of technology, we cannot be certain that we do not infringe intellectual property rights of competitors or other third parties or that we will not infringe intellectual property rights of competitors or other third parties granted or created in the future. Moreover, activities we conduct or those conducted on our behalf in connection with the development of our product candidates may not be protected from infringement under the so-called Safe Harbor provision of 35 U.S.C. § 271(e)(1) and thus may be found to infringe the patent rights of third parties. Our competitors or other third parties might have obtained, or could obtain in the future, patents that threaten, limit, interfere with or eliminate our ability to make, use and sell our products, product candidates or platform technologies in important commercial markets.

-55-


 

Due to the nature of our various partnerships, collaborators, licensors, CROs, CMOs and the like, we may be subjected to claims of infringement arising from activities conducted by these third parties in connection with our product candidates, whether or not such activities are authorized by us. In addition, we may have contractual obligations to indemnify these partners from claims of infringement or declaratory relief. As a result, we may be subject to substantial unforeseen costs, distraction, and financial liability if a third party making such a claim was successful in obtaining a final judgment of infringement and validity.

In order to maintain or obtain freedom to operate for our products and product candidates, we may incur significant expenses, including those associated with entering into agreements with third parties that require milestone and royalty payments. Additionally, if we were to challenge the patent rights of our competitors or otherwise defend against allegations of infringement, misappropriation, breach of contract or related claims, we could incur substantial costs and ultimately might not be successful.

If our products, product candidates, or platform technologies are alleged to infringe or are determined to infringe enforceable proprietary rights of others, we could incur substantial costs and may have to:

obtain rights or licenses from others, which might not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all;
abandon development of an infringing product candidate, or cease commercialization of an infringing product;
redesign our products, product candidates or processes to avoid infringement;
pay damages; and/or
defend litigation or administrative proceedings which might be costly whether we win or lose, and which could result in a substantial diversion of financial and management resources.

Any of these events could result in product and product candidate development delays or cessation, and as such substantially harm our potential earnings, financial condition and operations. The patent landscape of our product candidates and products is continually evolving and multiple parties, including both commercial entities and academic institutions, may have rights to claims or may be pursuing additional claims that could provide these parties a basis to assert that our products, product candidates or platform technologies infringe on the intellectual property rights of such parties. There has been, and we believe that there will continue to be, significant litigation in the biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical industries regarding patent and other intellectual property rights.

Risks Related to our Business Operations

Failure to comply with healthcare and other regulations is subject to substantial penalties and our business, operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

As a manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, within the U.S., certain federal and state healthcare laws and regulations apply to or affect our business. These laws may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we conduct business, including how we conduct research regarding, market, sell, and distribute our products. The laws and regulations include:

federal healthcare anti-kickback law, which prohibit, among other things, persons from soliciting, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual, for an item or service or the purchasing or ordering of a good or service, for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid;
federal false claims laws which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, information or claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent;
the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, which among other things, strictly regulates drug product and medical device marketing, prohibits manufacturers from marketing such products for off-label use and regulates the distribution of samples;
federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers;
federal laws that require pharmaceutical manufacturers to report certain calculated product prices to the government or provide certain discounts or rebates to government authorities or private entities, often as a condition of reimbursement under government healthcare programs;

-56-


 

the so-called “federal sunshine” law, which requires pharmaceutical and medical device companies to monitor and report certain financial interactions with teaching hospitals, physicians and certain non-physician practitioners as well as physician ownership interests to the federal government for re-disclosure to the public; and
state law equivalents of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third party payor, including commercial insurers, state laws regulating interactions between pharmaceutical manufactures and healthcare providers, and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by federal laws, thus complicating compliance efforts.

The number and complexity of both federal and state laws continues to increase, and additional governmental resources are being used to enforce these laws and to prosecute companies and individuals who are believed to be violating them. We anticipate that government scrutiny of pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices and other activities will continue for the foreseeable future and subject us to the risk of government investigations and enforcement actions. Given the breadth of the laws and regulations, limited guidance for certain laws and regulations, and evolving government interpretations of the laws and regulations, governmental authorities may possibly conclude that our business practices are non-compliant.

We have implemented a compliance program, which is based on industry best practices and is designed to ensure that our activities comply with all applicable laws, regulations and industry standards. While our compliance program is intended to detect and prevent potential non-compliance, we cannot be certain that compliance will be assured. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other laws, rules or regulations that apply to us, we will be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Any penalties, damages, fines, curtailment or restructuring of our operations could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. Responding to government investigations, defending any claims raised, and any resulting fines, restitution, damages and penalties, settlement payments or administrative actions, as well as any related actions brought by stockholders or other third parties, could have a material impact on our reputation, business and financial condition and divert the attention of our management from operating our business. Even if we successfully defend against an action against us for violation of a law, the action and our defense could nonetheless cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. Moreover, achieving and sustaining compliance with applicable federal and state privacy, security, fraud and reporting laws may prove costly.

Government pricing requirements, such as those under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, other federal government programs, and state price transparency laws, and their related reporting and payment obligations require strict adherence; our failure to adhere to such requirements could subject us to penalties, sanctions, and fines that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects.

We participate in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, the PHS 340B drug pricing program, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Federal Supply Schedule, or FSS, pricing program, and the Tricare Retail Pharmacy program, and have obligations to report the average sales price for certain drug products to the Medicare program. Pricing and rebate calculations vary across products and programs, are complex, and are often subject to interpretation by us, governmental or regulatory agencies, and the courts, which can change and evolve over time. Requirements are subject to change.

If we become aware that our reporting for a prior quarter or other time period was incorrect or has changed as a result of recalculation of pricing data, we generally are obligated to resubmit the corrected data and provide refunds or other reconciliations. Price recalculations may affect the ceiling price at which we are required to offer our products to certain customers under the PHS 340B drug pricing program and increase our general costs.

Civil monetary penalties can be applied if we are found to have knowingly submitted any false price or product information to the government, if we are found to have made a misrepresentation in the reporting of our average sales price, if we fail to submit the required price data on a timely basis, or if we are found to have charged certain customers more than the statutorily mandated ceiling price. CMS also could decide to terminate our Medicaid Drug Rebate agreement. Our failure to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and other governmental programs could negatively impact our financial results.

Several states have passed or are considering legislation that requires or purports to require companies to report pricing information, including proprietary pricing information. Such reporting requirements are not always clearly defined and failure to appropriately disclose in accordance with these requirements may lead to the imposition of penalties.

 

-57-


 

If we, our collaborators, or any third-party manufacturers engaged by us or our collaborators fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could harm our business.

We, our collaborators, and any third-party manufacturers we engage are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the generation, handling, use, storage, treatment, manufacture, transportation and disposal of, and exposure to, hazardous materials and wastes, as well as laws and regulations relating to occupational health and safety, including those governing laboratory procedures, exposure to blood-borne pathogens and the handling of bio-hazardous materials. Our operations involve the use of hazardous materials, including organic and inorganic solvents and reagents. Although we believe that our activities conform in all material respects with such environmental laws, there can be no assurance that violations of these laws will not occur in the future as a result of human error, accident, equipment failure or other causes. Liability under environmental, health and safety laws can be joint and several and without regard to fault or negligence. The failure to comply with past, present or future laws could result in the imposition of substantial fines and penalties, remediation costs, property damage and personal injury claims, loss of permits or a cessation of operations, and any of these events could harm our business and financial condition. We expect that our operations will be affected by other new environmental, health and workplace safety laws on an ongoing basis, and although we cannot predict the ultimate impact of any such new laws, they may impose greater compliance costs or result in increased risks or penalties, which could harm our business.

Further, with respect to the operations of any current or future collaborators or third party contract manufacturers, it is possible that if they fail to operate in compliance with applicable environmental, health and safety laws and regulations or properly dispose of wastes associated with our product or product candidates, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, suffer reputational harm or experience a disruption in the manufacture and supply of our product or product candidates.

Comprehensive tax reform in the U.S. and future guidance could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”) was enacted on December 22, 2017 in the U.S. The TCJA contains significant changes to corporate taxation, including reduction of the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, elimination of U.S. tax on foreign earnings (subject to certain important exceptions), one-time taxation of offshore earnings at reduced rates regardless of whether they are repatriated, limitation of the tax deduction for interest expense, immediate deductions for certain new investments instead of deductions for depreciation expense over time, and modifying or repealing many business deductions and credits. On March 27, 2020, President Trump signed into law the “Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act” or the CARES Act, which included certain changes in tax law intended to stimulate the U.S. economy in light of the COVID-19 outbreak, including temporary beneficial changes to the treatment of net operating losses, interest deductibility limitations and payroll tax matters.

We continue to monitor changes in tax laws in the U.S. and the impact of proposed and enacted legislation in the international jurisdictions in which the company operates, which could materially impact our tax provision, cash tax liability and effective tax rate.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted, and may continue to result in disruptions to our commercialization, clinical trials, manufacturing and other business operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, cash flows and prospects.

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a substantial public health and economic challenge around the world. The rapid spread of COVID-19 and resurgences in infection rates have led to the implementation of various public health safety measures, as well as reported adverse impacts on healthcare resources, facilities and providers across the United States and in other countries. In response to the pandemic, healthcare providers have reallocated, and may need to further, reallocate, limited resources and personnel capacity to focus on the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and implement limitations on access to hospitals and other medical institutions due to concerns about the spread of COVID-19 in such settings. These responses may be extended by the duration of the outbreak, periodic spikes in infection rates due to new strains of the virus, new information that will emerge concerning the severity of the coronavirus and the actions to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact. These actions have and may in the future negatively impact commercialization, clinical trials, manufacturing and other business operations, including:

Commercial: The response to COVID-19 by healthcare providers has made it difficult for some patients, especially those dependent on a hospital setting, to receive infusions or initiate treatment with our commercial products. In addition, as a result of the pandemic, some patients may choose to delay or stop treatment to avoid a visit to a hospital or a visit of a third party in their homes to minimize the risk of infection. In some cases, at home infusions have been delayed due to outbreaks of COVID-19 among trained personnel and staffing shortages at times during periodic spikes in infection rates. These challenges may continue for the foreseeable future, which is expected to reduce our revenue and cash flows.

-58-


 

Clinical trials: The impact of COVID-19 has caused disruptions and delays in some of our clinical trials, and may in the future disrupt or delay our clinical trials. Missing data could undermine data integrity and probability of success. A resurgence of COVID-19 could delay the commencement of trials, site initiation, compliance in the trials, the completion of trials, including the completion of post-marketing requirements and commitments, slow down enrollment, and make the ongoing collection of data for patients enrolled in studies more difficult or intermittent. Quarantines and other travel limitations (whether voluntary or required) were implemented in many countries during the pandemic, and any future mitigation measures may impede participant movement, affect sponsor access to study sites, or interrupt healthcare services, which may negatively impact the execution of clinical trials. Significant delays or disruptions to our clinical trials could adversely affect our ability to timely initiate studies, conduct successful studies, obtain or maintain regulatory approvals, or commercialize our product candidates.
Operations: Remote working increases our vulnerability to cybersecurity breaches. Further, if the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic continues and our operations are adversely impacted, including due to an outbreak in a facility, we risk a delay, default and/or nonperformance under existing agreements.

Any of the foregoing factors could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results, cash flows and prospects. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our operations and those of our third-party partners will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including resurgences of COVID-19, additional or modified government actions, new information which emerges concerning the severity of COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain the virus or treat its impact, among others. In particular, the speed of the continued spread of COVID-19 globally, and the magnitude of interventions to contain the spread of the virus, will determine the impact of the pandemic on our operations.

Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income may be limited by provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, and it is possible that certain transactions or a combination of certain transactions may result in material additional limitations on our ability to use our net operating losses.

We have incurred substantial losses during our history and expect to incur more as we pursue our business strategy. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset a portion of future taxable income, if any, subject to expiration of such carryforwards in the case of carryforwards generated prior to January 1, 2018. In general, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating losses and certain other tax assets (including R&D tax credits) to offset future taxable income. In general, an ownership change occurs if the aggregate stock ownership of certain stockholders increases by more than 50 percentage points over such stockholders’ lowest percentage ownership during the testing period, which is generally three years. An ownership change could limit our ability to utilize our net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards for taxable years including or following such “ownership change.” Such limitations may result in expiration of a portion of the net operating loss carryforwards incurred prior to 2018 before utilization and may be substantial. If such change has occurred or does occur, the tax benefits related to the net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax assets may be limited or lost. Moreover, proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated under Section 382 of the Code could, if finalized, significantly impact a corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards or other attributes following an ownership change. Limitations imposed on the ability to use net operating losses and tax credits to offset future taxable income could require us to pay U.S. federal income taxes earlier than we estimated or than would have otherwise been required if such limitations were not in effect and could cause such net operating losses and tax credits to expire unused, in each case reducing or eliminating the benefit of such net operating losses and tax credits and potentially adversely affecting our financial position. Similar rules and limitations may apply for state income tax purposes. At the state level, there may also be periods during which the use of net operating loss carryforwards or other attributes is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed. These net operating losses have been fully offset by a valuation allowance due to uncertainties surrounding our ability to realize these tax benefits.

The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, among other things, implements a corporate book minimum tax (“BMT”) 15% rate that could apply to consolidated groups of companies with adjusted financial statement income in excess of $1.0 billion over a three-year period. The BMT has various limitations, including a more restrictive limit on availability of net operating loss carryforwards, which if applied to us, could impact its cash tax liability and ability to utilize tax attributes.

In addition, many of the jurisdictions in which we operate have or are expected to adopt changes to tax laws as a result of the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting final proposals from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and specific country anti-avoidance initiatives. In addition, the current proposal of the BMT may result in increases in tax imposed by non-U.S. jurisdictions. Such tax law changes and anti-avoidance initiatives increase uncertainty and may adversely affect our tax provision, cash tax liability and effective tax rate.

-59-


 

We are winding down our expired U.S. government contracts, and the U.S. government may deny payment of some or all of the currently outstanding amounts owed to us. In addition, further development of our infectious disease programs may be limited by the intellectual property and other rights retained by the U.S. government.

We have historically relied on U.S. government contracts and awards to fund and support certain infectious disease development programs. These contracts expired and we are currently involved in contract close-out activities. The U.S. government has the right to perform additional audits prior to making final payment of costs and fees. If we are not able to adequately support costs incurred or other government requirements, the government may deny payment of some or all of the currently outstanding amounts owed to us. In addition, the U.S. government may have the right to develop all or some parts of product candidates that we have developed under a U.S. government contract after such contract has terminated or expired.

Our employees, principal investigators, consultants and strategic partners may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk of fraud or other misconduct by our employees, principal investigators, consultants and strategic partners. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional failures to comply with the regulations of the FDA and non-U.S. regulators, provide accurate information to the FDA and non-U.S. regulators, comply with healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in the U.S. and abroad, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. We adopted a code of conduct applicable to all of our employees, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.

Failure to retain our key personnel or an inability to attract and retain additional qualified personnel would cause our future growth and our ability to compete to suffer.

We are highly dependent on the efforts and abilities of the principal members of our senior management. Additionally, we have scientific personnel with significant and unique expertise in RNA-targeted therapeutics and gene therapy technologies. The loss of the services of any one of the principal members of our managerial team or staff may prevent us from achieving our business objectives.

The competition for qualified personnel in the biotechnology field is intense, and our future success depends upon our ability to attract, retain, motivate and support such personnel. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated workforce competition and workforce shortages. In order to develop and commercialize our products successfully, we will be required to retain key management and scientific employees. In certain instances, we may also need to expand or replace our workforce and our management ranks. In addition, we rely on certain consultants and advisors, including scientific and clinical advisors, to assist us in the formulation and advancement of our research and development programs. Our consultants and advisors may be employed by other entities or have commitments under consulting or advisory contracts with third parties that limit their availability to us, or both. If we are unable to attract, assimilate or retain such key personnel, our ability to advance our programs would be adversely affected.

Turnover rates of key employees has varied substantially in recent years. Over the last few years, we have had several executive management changes. Leadership transitions can be inherently difficult to manage and may cause uncertainty or a disruption to our business or may increase the likelihood of turnover in other key officers and employees. If we lose the services of one or more of our senior management or key employees, or if one or more of them decides to join a competitor or otherwise to compete with us, our business could be harmed.

-60-


 

Risks Related to our Financial Condition and Capital Requirements

We have incurred operating losses since our inception and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

We incurred an operating loss of $267.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. Our accumulated deficit was $4.4 billion as of December 31, 2023. Although we currently have four commercially approved products in the U.S., we believe that it will take us some time to maintain profitability and positive cash flow from operations. Since our products and product candidates target small patient populations, the per-patient drug pricing must be high in order to recover our development and manufacturing costs, fund adequate patient support programs, fund additional research and achieve profitability. We may be unable to maintain or obtain sufficient sales volumes at a price high enough to justify our product development efforts and our sales, marketing and manufacturing expenses.

We have generally incurred expenses related to research and development of our technologies and product candidates and from general and administrative expenses that we have incurred while building our business infrastructure. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if and/or as we:

continue the commercialization of our products in the U.S.;
expand the global footprint of our products outside of the U.S.;
establish our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities;
continue our research, pre-clinical and clinical development of our product candidates;
respond to and satisfy requests and requirements from regulatory authorities in connection with development and potential approval of our product candidates;
initiate additional clinical trials for our product candidates;
seek marketing approvals for our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
acquire or in-license other product candidates;
maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;
increase manufacturing capabilities, including capital expenditures related to our real estate facilities and entering into manufacturing agreements;
hire additional clinical, quality control and scientific personnel; and
add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our product development and planned future commercialization efforts.

As a result, we expect to continue to incur significant operating losses at least through 2023. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing biopharmaceutical products, we are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or when, or if, we will become profitable.

We may need to raise additional funding, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force us to delay, limit or terminate our product development efforts or other operations.

We may require additional capital from time to time in the future in order to meet FDA post-marketing approval requirements and market and sell our products as well as to continue the development of product candidates in our pipeline, to prepare for potential commercialization of additional product candidates in our pipeline, to expand our product portfolio and to continue or enhance our business development efforts. The actual amount of funds that we may need and the sufficiency of the capital we have or are able to raise will be determined by many factors, some of which are in our control and others that are beyond our control.

While we are currently well capitalized, we may use available capital resources sooner than we expect under our current operating plan. In addition, our operating plan may change. We may need or choose to seek additional funds sooner than planned, through equity or debt financings, government or other third-party funding, marketing and distribution arrangements and other collaborations, strategic alliances, funded research and development arrangements and licensing arrangements or a combination of these approaches. In any event, we expect to require additional capital to expand future development efforts, obtain regulatory approval for, and to commercialize, our product candidates. Raising funds in the current economic environment may present additional challenges. Even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans, we may seek additional capital if market conditions are favorable or in light of specific strategic considerations.

-61-


 

Any additional fundraising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates. In addition, we cannot guarantee that future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. In the event we receive negative data from our key clinical programs or encounter other major setbacks in our development, manufacturing or regulatory activities or in our commercialization efforts, our stock price is likely to decline, which would make a future financing more difficult. Moreover, the terms of any financing may adversely affect the holdings or the rights of our stockholders. The issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, by us, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of our shares to decline. The sale of additional equity or convertible securities may dilute all of our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness may result in increased fixed payment obligations and we may be required to agree to certain restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. We could also be required to seek funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or otherwise at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable and we may be required to relinquish rights to some of our technologies or product candidates or otherwise agree to terms unfavorable to us, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and prospects.

If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, we may be required to significantly curtail, delay or discontinue one or more of our research or development programs or the commercialization of any product, if approved, or be unable to expand our operations or otherwise capitalize on our business opportunities, as desired, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights.

We may seek additional capital through a combination of private and public equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and strategic and licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, the ownership interest of our stockholders in our company may be diluted. In addition, the terms of any such securities may include liquidation or other preferences that materially adversely affect the rights of our stockholders. Debt financing, if available, may increase our fixed payment obligations and may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through collaboration, strategic partnerships and licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates, our intellectual property, future revenue streams or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

The estimates and judgments we make, or the assumptions on which we rely, in preparing our consolidated financial statements and condensed consolidated financial statements could prove inaccurate.

Our consolidated financial statements and condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, the amounts of charges accrued by us and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Such estimates and judgments include revenue recognition, inventory, valuation of stock-based awards, research and development expenses and income tax. We base our estimates on historical experience, facts and circumstances known to us and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. We cannot provide assurances, however, that our estimates, or the assumptions underlying them, will not change over time or otherwise prove inaccurate. If this is the case, we may be required to restate our consolidated financial statements or condensed consolidated financial statements, which could, in turn, subject us to securities class action litigation. Defending against such potential litigation relating to a restatement of our consolidated financial statements or condensed consolidated financial statements would be expensive and would require significant attention and resources of our management. Moreover, our insurance to cover our obligations with respect to the ultimate resolution of any such litigation may be inadequate. As a result of these factors, any such potential litigation could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and cause our stock price to decline, which could in turn subject us to securities class action litigation.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Our stock price is volatile and may fluctuate due to factors beyond our control.

The market prices for and trading volumes of securities of biotechnology companies, including our securities, has historically been volatile. Our stock has had significant swings in trading prices, in particular in connection with our public communications regarding feedback received from regulatory authorities. For example, over the last 12 months our stock has increased as much as 31% in a single day or decreased as much as 37% in a single day. The market has from time to time experienced significant price and

-62-


 

volume fluctuations unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly due to a variety of factors, including but not limited to:

the commercial performance of our products in the U.S.;
the timing of our submissions to regulatory authorities and regulatory decisions and developments;
positive or negative clinical trial results or regulatory interpretations of data collected in clinical trials conducted by us, our strategic partners, our competitors or other companies with investigational drugs targeting the same, similar or related diseases to those targeted by us;